List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations

BIT: bilateral investment treaty

CETA: Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement

CJEU: Court of Justice of the European Union

COMESA: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

CPTPP: Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership

CSR: corporate social responsibility

EAC: East African Community

EC: European Commission

ECJ: European Court of Justice

ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States

ECT: Energy Charter Treaty

EU: European Union

FDI: foreign direct investment

FET: fair and equitable treatment

FTA: free trade agreement

GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

ICC: International Chamber of Commerce

ICS: Investment Court System

ICSID: International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes

ICSID Convention: Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States

IIA: international investment agreement

IISD: International Institute for Sustainable Development

ILO: International Labour Organization

ISDS: investor–state dispute settlement

ITN: Investment Treaty News

MFN: most-favoured nation

MIC: multilateral investment court

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PCA: Permanent Court of Arbitration

PPP: public–private partnership

RCEP: Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

SADC: Southern African Development Community

SCC: Stockholm Chamber of Commerce

SDG: Sustainable Development Goal

TFEU: Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

UNCITRAL: United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

USMCA: United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement

VCLT: Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

WTO: World Trade Organization