IGF Mining Policy Framework Assessment: Mongolia
Mongolia began large-scale exploitation of its abundant mineral resources in the 1990s, leading to a mining boom and enabling one of the highest economic growth rates in the world.
The country is particularly rich in copper and coal reserves, the exploitation of which is primarily responsible for tripling Mongolia’s economic growth since 2009. The country is now heavily reliant on its minerals sector, which represents approximately 30 per cent of government revenues, 18.6 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP), 80 per cent of export earnings, and 70 per cent of new foreign direct investment into Mongolia.
This report presents the findings of the Mining Policy Framework assessment process conducted in Mongolia between August 2016 and January 2017.
It is structured as follows:
Section 2 briefly describes the methodology used to conduct the assessment;
Section 3 gives an overview of the mining sector in Mongolia and the policy context;
Section 4 presents the main results of the assessment along the six dimensions of the MPF;
Section 5 discusses these results and identifies key strengths and gaps;
and Section 6 presents some initial recommendations regarding implementation gaps that require particular attention from the host country government.