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Key organizations involved in sustainable
production and consumption
Government of Norway, Ministry of Environment
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs
UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics. Sustainable consumption activities
UNEP Working Group on Sustainable Product Development
World Business Council for Sustainable Development
The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
Center for a New American Dream
Consumers International
United Nations Environment Programme

Concepts & Frameworks : General
(Compiled in 1997)
A . B . C . D . E . F . G . H . I . J . K . L . M . N . O . P . Q . R . S . T . U . V . W . X . Y . Z

Key organizations involved in sustainable production and consumption

Government of Norway, Ministry of Environment
(Sustainable Production and Consumption home page)
Myntgata 2, Postboks 8013 Dep, 0030 Oslo
Telephone: 22 24 90 90
Fax: 22 24 95 60
E-mail: postmottak@md.dep.no

International Institute for Environment and Development
Environmental Economics Programme
Sustainable Consumption and Trade
3 Endsleigh Street,
London WC1H 0DD, UK
Telephone: +44 171 388 2117
Fax: +44 171 388 2826
E-mail: scati@iied.org

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Work Program on Sustainable Consumption and Production)
OECD Environment Directorate
2, rue André Pascal
75775 Paris Cedex 16 France
Fax: +33 (0)
E-mail: env.contact@oecd.org

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
External Relations Service, UNCTAD
Palais des Nations,
1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Tel: +41 22 907 12 34
Fax: +41 22 907 00 43
E-mail: ers@unctad.org

UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (Work Program on Sustainable Production and Consumption)
c/o Division for Sustainable Development/DESA
United Nations Plaza, Room DC2-2220
New York, New York 10017, USA
Tel: + 1 212-963-3170
Fax: + 1-212-963-4260
E-mail: dsd@un.org
Mr. Ralph Chipman

UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics. Sustainable consumption activities
39-43 Quai Andre Citroen, Paris, 75739, France
Tel: +33 1 44 37 14 50
Fax: +33 1 44 37 14 74
Email: unep.tie@unep.fr
Matthew Bentley
Email: "Matthew.Bentley@unep.fr

UNEP Working Group on Sustainable Product Development Nieuwe Achtergracht 166,
J.H. van't Hoff Institute
B-315, NL-1018 WV Amsterdam
Tel.: +31 20 525 6268
Fax: +31 20 625 8843
E-mail: unep@unep.frw.uva.nl

World Business Council for Sustainable Development
160, route de Florissant
CH-1231, Conches-Geneva
Telephone: (41) 22 839 3100
Fax: (41) 22 839 3131
E-mail: info@wbcsd.ch

The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
Döppersberg 19
D-42103 Wuppertal
Tel.: +49 (0)202 2492-0
Fax.: +49 (0)202 2492-108
E-mail: info@wupperinst.org

Center for a New American Dream
156 College Street, 2nd Floor, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
Telephone: (802)862-6762
Fax: (802)860-1735
E-mail: newdream@newdream.org

Consumers International
24 Highbury Crescent, London, N5 1RX, UK
Telephone: +44 171 226 6663
Fax: +44 171 354 0607
E-mail: consint@consint.org

United Nations Environment Programme (Sustainable Production and Consumption; Trade Programs)
P. O. Box 30552 Nairobi, Kenya
Telephone: +254 2 62 1234/3292
Fax: +254 2 62 3927/3692
E-mail: ipainfo@unep.org

Concepts & Frameworks : General

[ To Top ]Bakkes, Jan and Jaap van Woerden et al (eds.). The future of the global environment : a model-based analysis supporting UNEP's first global environment outlook. Bilthoven, Netherlands: Netherlands Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 1997. 154 p.

Contents: (Selected) 1 - Social and economic development and protection of environmental resources: the core questions and how to address them : 1.1 - Key questions, methods, and definitions, 1.2 - A world in transition, 1.3 - Structure of this report; 2 - Environmental pressure: socioeconomic driving forces and derived demands : 2.1 - The issue, 2.2 - Economic activity and population, 2.3 - Environmental pressure: energy, material use and emissions, 2.4 - Environmental pressures: demand for land and water, 2.5 - The goals: Agenda 21 and the Conventional Development scenario, 2.6 - Are the goods considered potentially achievable?; 3 - Interactions between land, water and the atmosphere: 3.1 - The issue, 3.2 - The main causes of acidification and climate change: energy consumption, industry and deforestation, 3.3 - Acidification, 3.4 - Climate change, 3.5 - Linkage of acidification and climate change, 3.6 - The goals, 3.7 - Are the goals considered potentially achievable?, 3.8 - Response options; 4 - Use of land and water: 4.1 The issue, 4.2 - Food production and land use: past and present, 4.3 - Food consumption and production: the future, 4.4 - Implications for land use, 4.5 - Fresh water, 4.6 - Are the goals considered potentially achievable?, 4.7 - Response options; 5 - Nature and its diversity: 5.1 - The issue, 5.2 - The main causes of nature loss, 5.3 - The development of nature and its diversity, 5.4 Discussion, 5.5 - Response options; 6 - Effects on human health: 6.1 - The issue, 6.2 - The relative importance of health determinants, 6.3 - The health status of the world's populations, 6.4 - Are goals considered potentially achievable?, 6.5 - Possible responses; 7 - Responses: priorities and strategies for making progress in implementing Agenda 21: 7.1 - Taking stock: assessing previous findings, 7.2 - Transitions to more sustainable forms of development, 7.3 - Assessing regional challenges, 7.4 - Policy strategies to enhance sustainable development, 7.5 - Cost indications of policies to promote sustainable development, 7.6 - Conclusions.

Abstract: This report presents the results of an integrated assessment of the global environment for the years 1970 to 2050. A quantitative systematic pressure - state - impact - response framework is used for analyzing future global and regional developments and their interlinkages. A range of factors are discussed, these include: environmental pressures; interactions between land, water and the atmosphere; the use of natural resources; and effects on human health. Priorities and strategies for implementing Agenda 21 are discussed.

[ To Top ]Bhaskar, V. and Andrew Glyn.

The north, the south and the environment : ecological constraints and the global economy. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1995. 263 p.

Contents: Introduction; Environmental sustainability and the growth of GDP: conditions for compatibility (Ekins and Jacobs); Northern growth and environmental constraints (Glyn); Can the north stop consumption growth? Escaping the cycle of work and spend (Amalric); Population growth and the environmental crisis: beyond the "obvious" (Bhaskar); Distributive justice and the control of global warming (Bhaskar); Enclosing the global commons: global environmental negotiations in a north-south conflictual approach (Lipietz); Environmental policies and north-south trade: a selected survey of the issues (Sen); The Korean model of development and its environmental implications (You); National development and local environmental action - the case of the River Narmada (Sen); Economics and ecosystems: the case of Zimbabwean peasant households (Cavendish); Development after ecology (Sutcliffe).

Abstract: This book analyses the impact of environmental constraints on the patterns of development in both the North and the South, and on the relations between the two. Current inequalities in the distribution of income, resource use and consumption mean that constraints will have very different implications around the world. Experts from the North and the South assess the kinds of economic institutions, government policies and international arrangements which are needed in order to achieve sustainable development in both the industrial and developing world, and a just and economically viable relationship between them.

[ To Top ]Brandt, Barbara .

Whole life economics : revaluing daily life. Philadelphia, PA: New Society, 1995. 243 p.

Contents The problem of economic invisibility; The problem of economic addiction; Beyond the textbooks: the economics of daily life; Beyond economic addictions: making decisions that empower.

Abstract This book describes a new economics emerging in the world today, an economics that more fully meets human needs, supports personal and community relationships, promotes justice and empowerment, and is more respectful of the natural environment than our officially recognized economic systems. It explains why this new economics is now emerging, and how it can be made more a reality in people's lives and communities.

[ To Top ]Cairns, Stephanie, Barbara Campbell and Rob Macintosh.

Fine tuning taxes for energy eco-efficiency : a study commissioned for the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy : Greening the budget workshop October 17, 1995. Drayton Valley, AB, The Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, 1995. 48 p.

Contents: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Study rationale : Eco-efficiency - towards the " Factor 10 " economy, Why focus on taxes ?, Task force on economic instruments and disincentives to sound environmental practices, National action programme on climate change; 3 - Scope : Parameters of the study, "Fine-tuning" terms of reference; 4 - Methodology and application : Define "sound environmental practice", Assess each sectoral policy package, Identify the results of any proposed adjustment; 5 - Findings : CCA class 43.1 for energy conservation property, Deductibility of business travel expenses, Scientific research and experimental tax credit, Canadian exploration expense, Flow through shares, CCA class 41a - new mines and major expansions, CCA on power operated movable equipment, Atlantic investment tax credit; 6 - Summary.

Abstract : This study examines, with a view to increasing eco-efficiency, how federal capital tax measures influence investment or operating decisions in the energy sector, and energy purchasing and use decisions by consumers. Potential directions for adjusting existing tax measures to increase incentives for energy eco-efficiency are offered.

[ To Top ]Canada. Environment Canada.

Moving towards sustainable consumption and production : Building a community of concern and commitment : May 26-27, 1997 : Chateau Cartier Hotel, Aylmer, Quebec. (s.l.): The authors, 1997. 1v. in various pagings.

Notes: Publication information assumed.

Contents: 1 - Introduction; Vision; Issues and challenges; 2 - Pathways; The role of pollution prevention in sustainable production (Delphi Group): I - Introduction, II - Background - Approaches to pollution prevention, III - Framework for pollution prevention in Canada; IV Moving towards cleaner production; 3 - The role of pollution prevention in sustainable production (Delphi); 4 - Financing sustainable consumption & production - Engaging capital markets (Delphi Group): I - The critical role of capital, II - Capital markets and financing sustainability, III - Case examples of sustainable financing and investment, IV - Issues concerning the sustainable use of capital; V - Concluding remarks; 5 - Sustainable consumption: Issues and challenges (IndEco Strategic Consulting): I Background and overview, II - Consumption and sustainable development, III - Sustainable consumption and consumer behavior, IV - Sustainable consumption practices in Canada, V - Moving toward sustainable consumption, VI - Issues raised; VII - Concluding remarks; 6 - Walpole Island, First Nation, Canada; Towards sustainable consumption with Ecoteams (GAP International); 7 - The role of economic instruments in sustainable production and consumption (Delphi Group): I - Economic instruments, taxation & public expenditures, II - Taxation issues and reform, III - The re-configuration of public expenditures, IV - Environmental charges and benefits, V - Barriers to economic instruments which support SCAP, VI - Economic instruments: Issues for discussion, VII - Closing remarks; 8 - Green purchasing as a catalyst for sustainable production and consumption (Delphi Group): I - Introduction, II - Scope and definition, III - Status of green purchasing, IV - Challenges to advancing green purchasing, V - Opportunities and responses, VI - Leadership and best practices in green purchasing, VII - Key policy issues for further discussion; 9 - Reducing the ecological footprint of consumption (Rees); 10 - Product environmental management (IndEco Strategic Consulting Inc): I - The relationship between sustainable production and consumption and product environmental management, II - Background and overview, III Product environmental management in Canada, IV - Issues raised .

Abstract: This report provides the results of workshop discussions on achieving sustainable consumption. The remainder of this volume is a collection of papers provided by participants in the workshops.

[ To Top ]Cobb, Clifford, Ted Halstead and Jonathan Rowe.

The genuine progress indicator : summary of data and methodology. San Francisco, CA: Redefining Progress, 1995. 50 p.

Contents: Foreword; Introduction : What is "the economy?", Why growth of GDP does not equal progress, The need for new measures of progress; Overview of the genuine progress indicator : Summary of the GPI methodology, The centrality of consumption; The GPI - Explanation by column; The GPI - data by column; Discussion of results.

Abstract: This document introduces a new measure of the economic well-being of the nation from 1950 to present. It broadens the conventional accounting framework to include the economic contributions of the family and community, and of the natural habitat, along with conventionally measured economic production. The deficiencies of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) are outlined and the argument is made for a new measure called the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI). The methodology for calculating the GPI is presented. In contrast to the GDP's doubling from the 1950s to present, the GPI increased during the 1950s and 1960s but declined by roughly 45 since 1970. This rate of decline accelerated between the 1970s and the 1990s.

[ To Top ]Daly, Herman.

Beyond growth : the economics of sustainable development. Boston, MA: Beacon, 1996. 253 p.

Contents: (Selected) Introduction: the shape of current thought on sustainable development; Part I - Economic theory and sustainable development: Introduction, 1 - Moving to a steady-state economy, 2 - Elements of environmental macroeconomics, 3 - Consumption: value added, physical transformation, and welfare; Part II - Operational policy and sustainable development: Introduction, 4 - Operationalizing sustainable development by investing in natural capital, 5 - Fostering environmentally sustainable development: four parting suggestions for the World Bank; Part III - National accounts and sustainable development: 6 - Toward a measure of sustainable net national product, 7 - On sustainable development and national accounts; Part IV - Population and sustainable development: Introduction, 8 - Carrying capacity as a tool of development policy: the Ecuadoran Amazon and Paraguayan Chaco, 9 - Marx and Malthus in Northeast Brazil: a note on the World's largest class difference in fertility and its recent trends; Part V - International trade and sustainable development: Introduction, 10 - Free trade and globalization vs. environment and community, 11 - From adjustment to sustainable development: the obstacle of free trade; Part VI : Two pioneers in the economics of sustainable development: Introduction, 12 - The economic thought of Frederick Soddy, 13 - On Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's contributions to economics: an obituary essay; Part VII - Ethics, religion, and sustainable development: Introduction, 14 - A biblical economic principle and the sustainable economy, 15 - Sustainable development: from religious insight to ethical principle to public policy.

Abstract: This book argues that the idea of sustainable development is being used in ways that are vacuous, wrong, and probably dangerous. It argues that solutions need to be far more radical than most people believe. Achieving sustainable development requires that we conceive of the economy as part of the ecosystem and, as a result, give up on the ideal of economic growth. We need a global understanding of developing welfare that does not entail expansion. These ideas are fundamentally radical concepts, and the author argues that basic ideas about economic theory, poverty, trade, and population have to be discarded or rethought.

[ To Top ]De Sherbinin, Alex.

Population and consumption issues for environmentalists : a literature search and bibliography prepared by the Population Reference Bureau for the Pew Charitable Trusts' Global Stewardship Initiative. Washington, D.C.: PRB, 1993. 25 p.

[ To Top ]Durning, Alan Thein.

How much is enough? : the consumer society and the future of the Earth. Worldwatch environmental alert series. New York: W.W. Norton, 1992. 200 p.

Abstract: Argues that the linked fates of humanity and the natural realm depend on us, the consumers, and that in order to curtail our use of ecologically destructive things we must cultivate the deeper, non-material sources of fulfillment such as family and social relationships, meaningful work, and leisure.

Environment strategy Europe. London: Camden Publishing, 1991. v. ; annual

Contents: (1995/96 ed.): Sustainable production and consumption. Forword; Environment ministers' forum; European agenda; OECD report; NGO agenda; Business response; Corporate responsibility in practice; Technology and services in practice; Sector issues; Environmental reference guide.

[ To Top ]Friends of the Earth. FoEI position paper for the 3rd session of the U. N. Commission on Sustainable Development 11-28 April 1995session of the CSD.

[ To Top ]Friends of the Earth.

Sustainable consumption : a global perspective. Amsterdam: FOE, 1996. 72 p.

Contents: 1 - What is sustainable consumption?; 2 - The challenge of sustainable consumption; 3 - The consumption of fossil fuels; 4 - The consumption of mineral resources; 5 - Sustainable land use; 6 -The international agenda.

Abstract: This book discusses the concept and principles of sustainable consumption. Focusing on different natural resources the book argues for delinking consumption and natural resource use. The different perspectives of the developed and less developed countries are discussed along with their strategies for achieving sustainable consumption.

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Friends of the Earth International.


Sustainable Societies : sustainable production and consumption.


Abstract: List of links to organizations dealing with sustainable societies.

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Gabriel, Yiannis and Tim Lang.

The unmanageable consumer : contemporary consumption and its fragmentation.

London: Sage Publications, 1995. 213 p.

Contents: Introduction: The faces of the consumer; 1 - The emergence of contemporary consumerism; The consumer as chooser; The consumer as communicator; The consumer as explorer; The consumer as identity-seeker; The consumer: hedonist or artist?; The consumer as victim; The consumer as rebel; The consumer as activist; The consumer as citizen; The twilight of consumerism.

Abstract: This book shows how different traditions have constructed different representations of the consumer. The authors identify, disentangle and juxtapose approaches to contemporary consumption. The contemporary western consumer is examined first, followed by consideration of the consumer as a chooser, communicator, explorer, victim, identity-seeker, hedonist or artist, rebel, activist, and citizen. This book examines not only different academic and everyday discourses on consumption, but also the views and ideas of organizations and activists who represent or claim to represent consumers. The qualities of fragmentation and unmanageability of contemporary western consumption as part of a long-term historical process are examined by the authors.

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Harwood Group.

Yearning for balance : views of Americans on consumption, materialism and the environment.

Takoma Park, MD: Merck Family Fund, 1995. 26 p. http://www.iisd.ca/linkage/consume/harwood.html

Abstract: Presents a report of citizen perspectives on the issue of consumption. It is based on a series of focus group discussions and a national survey designed to allow Americans to frame the issue themselves - to describe the concerns, beliefs and values they bring to bear in thinking about the role of consumption in their lives and in society.

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Henderson, Hazel.

Paradigms in progress : life beyond economics. Indianapolis, IN: Knowledge Systems, 1991. 293 p.

Contents: Riding the tiger of change; Living Earth's Lessons Co-Creatively; From economism to earth ethics and systems theory; Beyond GNP; Ode to the life force; Beyond the battle of the sexes; The indicators crisis; Greening the economy and recycling economics; Toward a new world order; The age of light; Cosmic economics.

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Independent Commission on Population and Quality of Life.

Caring for the future: making the decades provide a life worth living : report of the Independent Commission on Population and Quality of Life

. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996. 359 p.

Contents: Introduction: a world in transition; Part I - Context and challenges: 1 - The population challenge, 2 - The social challenge: facing poverty, 3 - The ecological challenge, 4 - The economic challenge: a new production and consumption model for the globalized economy; Part II - Towards a fresh vision: 5 - Focusing on the goal: sustainable improvement of the quality of life, 6 - Respecting the limits: the carrying capacity of the Earth, 7 - Responding to needs: the caring capacity of humankind; Part III - From vision to politics: 8 - Attitudes towards population change: a paradigm shift, 9 - Redefining work, 10 - Towards an alternative educational policy, 11 - From medical to health care, 12 - Reproductive choices, 13 - Empowering women; Part IV - New global perspectives: 14 - Mobilizing social forces - towards a new social contract, 15 - Mobilizing resources - tapping the markets, 16 - Conclusions and recommendations.

Abstract: This report examines the challenges that face all countries, both rich and poor, in the last years of the century. The Independent Commission on Population and Quality of Life outlines a radical agenda to confront the economic, human, and environmental crises facing the world today. This agenda includes targets and timetables to improve the standards of health care and education throughout the world; a tax on international financial transactions to raise the necessary funding; a rejection of the over reliance on free-market economics that condemns sections of the world to poverty, ill health, and unemployment; putting women's rights at the forefront of the effort to stabilize the world's population.

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Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research .

Consumption patterns: the driving force of environmental stress : a report. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development research paper no.3. Bombay: The Institute, 1992. 38 p.

Conference: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

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International Organization of Consumers Unions.

Beyond the year 2000 : the transition to sustainable consumption : a policy document on environmental issues

. The Hague: IOCU, 1993. 51 p.

Notes: Basic document for the conference and seminar: "Sustainable consumption" held in The Hague, 1993.

Contents: (Selected): State of the environment Climate change: the greenhouse effect, Depletion of stratospheric ozone, Population growth, Air pollution and acid rain, Destruction of ecosystems: loss of biodiversity, Municipal wastes-Incineration, composting, recycling, recycling metals, glass paper, plastics, Industrial chemical wastes, Toxic chemicals; What is sustainable consumption, Consumer organizations.

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International Organization of Consumers Unions.

Consumers and the environment : proceedings of the IOCU Forum...4 June 1992. Penang, MY: IOCU, 1992. 83 p.

Notes: As part of the 'Independent Sectors Global Forum', a series of parallel events held in conjunction with the UNCED Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, IOCU organized a public forum on sustainable consumption. The forum took the form of a panel discussion.

Conference: IOCU Forum on Sustainable Consumption (1992 : Rio de Janiero).

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International Organization of Consumers Unions.

Proceedings of seminar on "sustainable consumption" (Oegstgeest : April 1993). The Hague: IOCU, 112 p.

Contents: Proceedings of seminar on "sustainable consumption" -includes: Introductory Session; Sustainable Consumption Within Environmental Space; Response of Consumer Organizations to the Need for More Sustainable Consumption Patterns; Environmental Testing; Waste From Consumption; Health and Environment; Food and the Environment; Environmental Problems and Economic Measures.

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Jackson, Tim

. Material concerns : pollution, profit and quality of life. New York: Routledge, 1996. 218 p.

Contents: 1 -Living in a material world: rough guide to a lonely planet; 2 - Material transitions : the birth of the industrial economy; 3 - Farewell to love canal: from industrial afterthought to environmental foresight; 4 - A stitch in time: the principles of prevention; 5 - Easy virtues: saving money through pollution prevention; 6 - Persistent vices: understanding resistance to change; 7 - Back to the future: reinventing the service economy; 8 Negotiating change: dematerialisation and the profit motive; 9 - Growth in crisis: untangling the logic of wealth; 10 - Beyond material concerns: regaining quality of life.

Abstract: This book is a non-technical introduction to preventative environmental management. The author describes the technical tasks involved in reducing to a minimum the quantity of materials used to supply services to people. It presents new perspectives on key environmental issues - pollution prevention, ecological economics, sustainability limits, consumer behavior and government policy - and draws on detailed case studies from across the industrial world.

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May, Peter H. and Ronaldo Seroa da Motta, (eds.).

Pricing the planet : economic analysis for sustainable development.

New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 220 p.

Contents: Introduction (May, Seroa da Motta); 1 - Sustainability; 2 - Consumption patterns - The driving force of environmental stress (Parikh); 3 - A tradable carbon entitlements approach to global warming policy: Sustainable allocations (Rose, Stevens); 4 - Back-of-the-envelope estimates of environmental damage costs in Mexico (Margulis); 5 - Health costs associated with air pollution in Brazil (Seroa da Motta, Mendes); 6 - Managing the transition to sustainable development: The role of economic incentives (Tietenberg); 7 - Ecological economics: Creating a transdisciplinary science (Costanza); 8 - Carrying capacity as a tool of development policy: The Ecuadoran Amazon and the Paraguayan Chaco (Daly); 9 - Green accounting for sustainable development (Bartelmus); 10 - Measuring sustainable income: The cases of mineral and forest depletion in Brazil (Seroa da Motta, May).

Abstract: This volume contains a selection from seminar proceedings held during the Symposium and Exhibit of Environmental Technologies (ECOTECH) held in Rio de Janeiro on June 2, 1992 as part of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The authors from both developed and developing countries emphasize the need for policy and technology alternatives that are economically viable and ecologically sound. Essays address specific changes that could help to foster sustainable development, based on principles of ecological economics and giving closer attention to carrying capacity. Through analyses of economic models the authors describe ways to prevent long-term depletion of natural resources. Finally, environmental pollution and its effects on human health are considered. The costs related to containing such problems and how policy might be changed to encourage more effective use of natural resources are discussed.

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Menzel, Peter.

Material world : a global family portrait

. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 1995. 256 p

Contents: (Selected) Introduction; Betting the planet; Methodology; Africa; Televisions of the world; Asia; Latin America; North America; Islands; Meals of the World; Europe; Toilets of the world; Middle East; Appendices; Afterword.

Abstract: This book presents a series of descriptions of families and their material possessions from around the world. Through the discussion of photographs and statistics the author provides information that a reader can use to compare and contrast the lifestyles of people in different countries.

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Merck Family Fund.

Redefining the American dream : the search for sustainable consumption : conference report.

Takoma Park, MD: Merck Family Fund, 1995. 18 p. http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/merck.html

Abstract: Reports on a conference held April 1995 to discuss the question "how do we create a society that does not steal from the future?".

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Myers, Norman.

Population and consumption in relation to environment and development.

Oxford, UK: The author, 1996. 30 p.

Notes: Unpublished monograph.

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Norway. Ministry of Environment.

Oslo Roundtable Conference on Sustainable Production and Consumption (1995 : Oslo, Norway).



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Norway. Ministry of the Environment.

Symposium : sustainable consumption [held] 19-20 January, 1994 [in] Oslo, Norway. Oslo: Norway Ministry of the Environment, 1994. 180 p.

[ To Top ]Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Expert seminar on sustainable consumption and production patterns, Summary report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Cambridge, MA (18 - 20 December 1994) http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/mit.html

[ To Top ]Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. OECD workshop on sustainable consumption and production : clarifying the concepts. (Final report) (Rosendal, Norway : July 1995). Paris: OECD, 1995. 49 p.

Contents: Introduction; Analysis of the key concepts; Sustainable consumption concepts and policy implications; Conclusions and issues for further consideration.

Abstract: This paper has been prepared on the basis of a literature review of a number of concepts, identified by the OECD secretariat as those which, to date, have most often been introduced into the debate surrounding the need to modify consumption patterns. Concepts reviewed include: carrying capacity; environmental utilization space or ecospace; the steady state economy; ecological "footprints"; green accounting; and eco-efficiency.

[ To Top ]Pinstrup-Andersen, Per. World food trends and future food security. Washington, DC: The International Food Policy Research Institute, 1994. 25 p.

Contents: Feeding the world: availability and access to food; Can yield gains keep pace with population growth?; The future of food trade and aid; Four key factors will influence future food production and consumption; No time for complacency.

Abstract: The report attempts to answer the questions: What can be learned from current world food trends?; Are production trends of the last 30 years likely to continue?; Will the future bring global food surpluses or increasing food scarcity and widespread hunger?; among others.

[ To Top ]Prescott, Jacques and Jeqan-Pierre Drapeau. "Measuring the environmental impact of natural resource consumption." Ecodecision (Spring 1995): 76-79.

Ramphal, Sir Shridath. Consumption: the other side of population for development: address to the International Conference on Population and Development on behalf of The Commission on Global Governance and the Earth Council, Cairo, 6 September 1994. San Jose, Costa Rica: Earth Council, 1994. 17p.

[ To Top ]Redclift, Michael. Wasted : counting the cost of global consumption. London, UK: Earthscan, 1996. 173 p.

Contents: Chapter One - Introduction; Chapter Two - The earth summit; Chapter Three - Meeting environmental targets; Chapter Four - The global economy and consumption; Chapter Five - Managing global resources; Chapter Six - Metabolizing nature; Chapter Seven - Sustainability and social commitments; Chapter Eight - Local environmental action.

Abstract: This book contends that sustainability will not be achieved by inventing management techniques to combat the contradictions of development. Rather, it can only be achieved by incorporating a knowledge of the consequences of our behavior into the behavior itself. This book outlines the importance of this objective, and its implications. To achieve sustainability the author argues that we need to recover our control over consumption rather than invent new institutions to manage its consequences.

[ To Top ]Rogers, Adam. (ed.). Taking action : an environmental guide for you and your community. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP, 1995. 224 p.

Contents: (Selected) Part I - The foundation for sustainable action: 1 - The global environment, 2 - The global economy, 3 - The role of communities, 4 - Organizing for community action, 5 - The community toolbox; Part II - Challenges and opportunities: 6 - Population and consumption, 7 - Energy, 8 - Waste, 9 - The atmosphere, 10 - Biodiversity, 11 - Freshwater resources, 12 - Oceans and coasts, 13 - Forests, 14 - Agriculture and land use, 15 - Desertification; Appendices.

Abstract: This book explores how various groups of people (eg., women, business and industry, youth, children, indigenous people, non-governmental organizations, etc.) and other members of civil society can take practical action at the community level to address environmental problems and establish sustainable relationships with the natural world around them. The first part of the book provides an overview of the different communities and how they can be organized for community action. A toolbox of techniques are included to facilitate organizing the community. The second part takes an issue based approach to discuss the challenges and opportunities that communities are faced with when confronting environmental problems. Population and consumption, energy, and waste management are among the different issues discussed.

[ To Top ]Schmidheiny, Stephan. Changing course : a global business perspective on development and the environment. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992. 374 p.

Contents: The business of sustainable development. Pricing the environment: markets, costs and instruments. Energy and the marketplace. Capital markets: financing sustainable development. Trade and sustainable development. Managing corporate change. The innovation process. Technology cooperation. Sustainable management of renewable resources: agriculture and forestry. Leadership for sustainable development in developing countries. Case studies: successful steps toward sustainable development: Managing change in business, managing business partnerships, managing stakeholder partnerships, managing financial partnerships, managing cleaner production, managing cleaner products, managing sustainable resource use. App.1. Priorities for a rational energy strategy.

[ To Top ]Schor, Juliet. Toward sustainable consumption : redefining the American dream. [sl] : The Author, 1995. 28 p.

Abstract: The issue of sustainable consumption is finally emerging on the American scene. Prompted by the Rio Summit, the 1990s recession, overwork, and a painful hangover from the status-oriented consumption binge of the 1980s, individuals, the media, and some institutions are beginning to think the unthinkable. Maybe the American dream isn't all its cracked up to be. Perhaps the endless pursuit of more is becoming too costly.

[ To Top ]Segal, Jerome M. "Alternatives to the mass consumption society". Report from the Institute for Philosophy & Public Policy 15 (Fall, 1995) : 35-39.

[ To Top ]Speth, James Gustave. Environmentally unsustainable consumption patterns: is there a way out? Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1991. Unpaged.

Notes: Background paper prepared for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).

"Sustainable Consumption". Warmer Bulletin (November, 1995) : 20-21.

[ To Top ]United States. President's Council on Sustainable Development. Population and consumption : task force report. Washington, D.C., PCSD, 1996 . 97 p.

Contents (Selected) Preface; Executive summary; Introduction; Chapter 1 - Population: History for the U.S. population issue, Demographic trends, Findings and policy recommendations: fertility, immigration, population distribution, Conclusions on population; Chapter 2 - Consumption: History and scope of the consumption issue, Findings and policy recommendations: using economic policy instruments, educating consumers, a new material economy, technology for sustainability, Conclusions on consumption; Chapter 3 - Conclusions; Chapter 4 - Goals and policy recommendations; Appendices.

Abstract This task force report focuses on the topic of population and consumption. The task force discussed population growth in the United States and concludes that population must be stabilized as soon as possible. Recommendations for achieving this goal included the following: education and support for contraception and reproductive health; increasing educational opportunities for adolescents using community-orientated, peer based, and adult mentoring programs; develop public-private partnerships to reduce poverty, especially for women; developing immigration and foreign policies to reduce illegal immigration; initiating research into national population distribution and its affect on sustainable development prospects. The task force also concluded that the United States must move toward greater material and energy efficiency in all production and use of goods and services. Policy recommendations to achieve this goal included: shifting the tax burden from labor and investment toward consumption; reducing and eliminating inefficient and environmentally harmful government subsidies; establishing federal "eco-labelling" procedures; change government procurement policies to increase the use of environmentally preferable products; educate citizens about consumer practices and choices to reduce consumption; encourage manufacturers to insure appropriate recycling, reuse, and disposal of all packaging; issue federal guidelines and models for municipal volume-based and weight-based household waste collection systems and curbside recycling programs; adopt state and local programs to curb the flow of toxic materials into municipal waste streams; develop civilian technology in partnership with the federal government to provide new ways to increase materials and energy efficiency.

[ To Top ]Wann, David. Deep design : pathways to a livable future. Washington, Island Press, 1996. 216 p

Contents: (Selected) Foreword (Hawken); 1 - Deep design: from the visionary to the pragmatic; 2 - The social-environmental connection: what do we want, and how can design deliver it?; 3 - Design at the molecular level: pathways to chemicals that fit; 4 - In search of the soft path: efficiency and renewable energy; 5 - Re-envisioning agriculture: pathways to regenerative systems; 6 - A near-perfect world, if you're a wheel: designing communities that work; 7 - Design criteria that work: how should we think about design?; 8 - Design for environment: making it better; 9 - The evolution of design species: toward a best-case scenario of diversity, conservation, and caretaking .

Abstract : This book introduces and discusses a new design philosophy that considers ecological as well as the sociological limits within the design process. The author considers different approaches to deep design that range from Aikido Engineering, a form of engineering that seeks to utilize natural forces and succeed through a path of least resistance, to industrial ecology where a systems approach is applied to materials and resource flows reaching beyond the actual production facility. Each approach is introduced and examples of their application are provided and discussed. Examples include the design of buildings, urban sewage treatment facilities, computers, communities, industrial facilities, wind generation systems and agriculture without pesticides.

[ To Top ]World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Sustainable production and consumption: a business perspective. Geneva, Switzerland: WBCSD, 1996. 30 p.

Contents: (Selected) Executive summary; Chapter 1 - Sustainable production and consumption; Chapter 2 - Industrial ecology : a conceptual framework for SP & C; Chapter 3 - Making the link: SP & C and business strategy; Chapter 4 - Conclusion and recommendations; WBCSD Working group members.

Concepts & Frameworks : Carrying Capacity

[ To Top ]Brown, Lester R. and Hal Kane. Full house : reassessing the Earth's population carrying capacity. New York: Norton & Company, 1994 . 261 p.

Contents: Entering an new era; Food insecurity; Ninety million more; Climbing the food chain; Overharvesting the oceans; Overgrazing rangelands; Limits of the plow; Spreading water scarcity; The fertilizer falloff; Struggling to raise yields; Environmental deductions; Carrying capacity: the big four; Carrying capacity: the next nine; The growing imbalance; Reassessing population policy; Turning the tide.

Abstract: In this book, the authors propose a global strategy to restore food security and a budget to implement it. Their global food security budget calls for stepped-up expenditures on both sides of the food/population equation. It includes investments not only to provide family planning services to all who want them, but also to eliminate the underlying causes of high fertility, such as female illiteracy. It also includes investments in an extensive reforestation and soil conservation effort, one that will arrest the deterioration of the agricultural resource base.

[ To Top ]Cohen, Joel E. How many people can the Earth support? New York: W. W. Norton, 1995. 532 p

Contents: Part 1 - Introduction: 1 - Between choices and constraints; Part 2 - Past Human Population Growth: 2 - Four evolutions in population growth, 3 - People control the growth of non-human population, 4 - People control the growth of human populations, 5 - Human population history in numbers and graphs, 6 - The uniqueness of the present relative to the past; Part 3 - Future Human Population Growth: 7 - Projection methods - the hazy crystal ball, 8 - Scenarios of future population, 9 - What do we know for sure about the future of global population?; Part 4 - The Human Carrying Capacity of the Earth: 10 - Eight estimates of human carrying capacity, 11 - Estimates of human carrying capacity: a survey of four centuries, 12 - Carrying capacity in ecology and applied ecology, 13 - Human choices, 14 - Water: a case study of natural constraints, 15 - Natural constraints, 16 - Human carrying capacity: an overview; Part 5 - Conclusion: Human Caring Capacity: 17 - Entering the zone, 18 - Looking beyond the next hill - some suggestions.

Abstract : This book reviews the history of population growth forecasts. The author details the problems that are involved in forecasting population noting the limitations of present methods. Historical estimates of the human carrying capacity of the earth are discussed and the author examines the application of ecological concepts of carrying capacity to humans. Limiting factors on carrying capacity are considered, including: Distribution of well-being; Technological developments; Domestic and international political institutions; Domestic and international economic arrangements; Domestic and international demographic arrangements; Physical, chemical and biological environments; Variability or stability of population; Risk or robustness of population; Time horizons; Fashions, tastes and moral values. Water is discussed as a case study of a natural constraint on human carrying capacity. The author concludes by making suggestions towards the improvement of population problems.

[ To Top ]Daily, Gretchen C. and Paul R. Ehrlich. "Population, sustainability and Earth's carrying capacity ". BioScience, 1992 . 9 p.

Abstract : Presents a framework for estimating population sizes and lifestyles that could be sustained without undermining future generations.

[ To Top ]Dale, Ann, John Robinson and Christine Massey. Reconciling human welfare and ecological carrying capacity : a series of workshops. Vancouver, BC, Sustainable Development Research Institute, 1995. 21 p.

Contents: Preamble; 1 - The limits of ecological carrying capacity (Regier); 2 - The economics of ecological limits (Lipsey); 3 - Reconciling ecological and economic imperatives (Hanson); 4 - Social and cultural dimensions of development issues (Catley-Carlson).

[ To Top ]Engelman, Robert. "Imagining a stabilized atmosphere : population and consumption interactions in greenhouse gas emissions". Journal of Environment and Development 4 (Winter 1995): 111-140.

Abstract: The roles of both population and personal consumption have been difficult to address in analyzing the causative factors in human-induced climate change. Argues that if population growth is considered in the context of a global effort to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases equitably, its importance emerges in a new light. Seen this way, population growth in both developing and developed countries adds to the pre-existing and considerable momentum of greenhouse-driven climate change itself. As population rises per capita atmosphere-stabilizing emissions fall, further restricting the sustainable use of fossil fuels on an individual basis. This relationship is best illustrated in a hypothetical industrial carbon dioxide emissions trading regime, which could be negotiated through the Framework Convention on Climate Change.

[ To Top ]Engelman, Robert. Stabilizing the atmosphere : population, consumption and greenhouse gases. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International, 1994. 48 p.

[ To Top ]Engelman, Robert and Pamela Leroy. Conserving land : population and sustainable food production. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International, 1995. 48 p.

[ To Top ]Meadows, Donella H. The limits to growth : a report for the Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind. New York: New American Library, 1972 . 207 p.

[ To Top ]Roy, Marlene A. Carrying Capacity....[selected sources]. Winnipeg, MB: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 1995. http://iisd.ca/ic/info/ss9506.htm

Contents: Brief concept statement followed by list of books, articles and organizations on or related to carrying capacity.

Concepts & Frameworks : Ecological Economics

[ To Top ]Constanza, Robert, Olman Segura and Juan Martinez-Alier, (eds). Getting down to Earth : practical applications of ecological economics. Washington, DC, Island Press, 1996 . 472 p.

Contents: 1 - Integrated envisioning, analysis, and implementation of a sustainable and desirable society (Costanza, Segura, Martinez-Alier); PART I - VISION : 2 - Socio-ecological principles for a sustainable society (Holmerg, Robert, Eriksson), 3 - Consumption: Value added, physical transformation, and welfare (Daly), 4 - Complexity, problem solving, and sustainable societies (Tainter), 5 - From ecological economics to productive ecology: Perspectives on sustainable development from the south (Leff), 6 - Social and ethical dimensions of ecological economics (Gupta), 7 - Envisioning a sustainable world (Meadows); PART II - ANALYSIS : 8 - Towards an economics for environmental sustainability (Ekins), 9 - Ecological and economic distribution conflicts (Martinez-Alier, O'Connor), 10 - Technological intensity, technological quality, and sustainable development (Gallopin), 11 - Renewable resource appropriation by cities (Folke, Larsson, Sweitzer), 12 - Emergent complexity and procedural rationality: Post-normal science for sustainability (O'Connor, Faucheux, Froger, Funtowicz, Munda), 13 - Integrating spatially explicit ecological and economic models: theory and application in the Patuxen River Watershed, Maryland (Costanza, Wainger, Bockstael), 14 - Ecological economics: The second stage (Duchin), 15 - Modelling the dynamics of resource depletion, substitution, recycling, and technical change in extractive industries (Ruth, Cleveland); PART III - IMPLEMENTATION : 16 - Institutional change and development towards sustainability (Opschoor), 17 - Creating the institutional setting for sustainability in Latin America (Dourojeanni), 18 - Applying agroecology to improve peasant farming systems in Latin America: an impact assessment of NGO strategies (Altieri, Yurjevic, Von der Weid, Sanchez), 19 - Property rights, people, and the environment (Hanna), 20 - Will new property rights regimes in Central and Eastern Europe serve nature conservation purposes? (Zylicz), 21 - Valuing social sustainability: Environmental recuperation on Fevela Hillsides in Rio de Janeiro (May, Pastuk), 22 - Resources planning should integrate conservation and development needs: the case of Tegucigalpa's water (Quesada-Mateo), 23 - The political dimension of implementing environmental reform: Lessons from Costa Rica (Kaimowitz, Segura), 24 - Envisioning sustainable alternatives within the framework of the UNCED process (Barcena, Silveira).

Abstract : This volume contains a collection of papers produced by participants in a workshop that followed the Third Biannual Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics held October 24-28, 1994 in San Jose, Costa Rica. The first chapter synthesizes and summarizes the many perspectives that were discussed, and delineates the remainder of the book. The first section of the book discusses ecological economics and addresses the envisioning aspect of the problem of achieving sustainability. The second section provides analysis of complex adaptive systems in light of the emerging ecological economics vision of sustainability. The final section is devoted to discussions of means of implementing the ecological economic vision that includes institutional changes necessary for achieving sustainability. Other papers look at integrated ecological accounting and modelling, changes to property rights regimes necessary for implementing sustainability, and the implementation of UNCED. Numerous case studies from Latin America consider the importance of equity.

[ To Top ]Daly, Herman E. and Kenneth N. Townsend, (eds.). Valuing the earth : economics, ecology, ethics. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1993. 387 p.

Contents: Ecology : ultimate means and biophysical contraints - Introduction (Daly, Townsend); Why isn't everyone as scared as we are (Ehrlich, Paul & Ehrlich, Anne); Availability, entropy, and the laws of thermodynamics (Ehrlich, Ehrlich, Holdren); The entropy law and the economic problem (Georgescu-Roegen); Selections from "Energy and Economic Myths" (Georgescu-Roegen); Exponential growth as a transient phenomenon in human history (Hubbert); The tragedy of the commons (Hardin); Second thoughts on "The tragedy of the commons" (Hardin). Ethics: the ultimate end and value constraints - Introduction (Daly, Townsend); The age of plenty : a Christian view (Schumacher); Buddhist economics (Schumacher); The purpose of wealth : a historial perspective (Smith); Ecology, ethics and theology (Cobb); The abolition of man (Lewis). Economics: interaction of ends and means - Introduction (Daly, Townsend); On economics as a life science (Daly); Sustainable growth: an impossibility theorem (Daly); Steady-state economics and the command economy (Townsend); The Economics of the coming spaceship earth (Boulding); Spaceship earth revisited (Boulding); Using economic incentives to maintain our environment (Tietenberg); The steady-state economy: toward a political economy of biophysical equilibrium and moral growth (Daly); Postscript - some common misunderstandings and further issues concerning a steady-state economy (Daly).

[ To Top ]Krishnan, Rajaram, Jonathan M. Harris and Neva R. Goodwin (eds.). A survey of ecological economics. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1995. 384 p.

Contents: Overview essay (Harris); Historical roots for ecological economics biophysical versus allocative approaches (Christensen); The teleological view of wealth: a historical perspective (Smith); The convergence of neo-Ricardian and embodied energy theories of value and price (Judson); Energy and energetics in economic theory: a review essay (Mirowski); Introduction to Ecological Economics: Energy, Environment and Society (Martinez-Alier, Schlupmann); The history of the future (Martinez-Alier, Schlupmann); Biophysical and Marxist Economics: learning from each other (Kaufmann); Biophysical economics : historical perspective and current research trends (Cleveland); World environmental history and economic development (Richards); The historical roots of our ecological crisis (White); The case that the world has reached limits (Goodland); One part wisdom : the great debate (Harrison); Environmental significance of development theory (Trainer); Overview essay (Harris); Toward an ecological economics (Costanza, Daly); Foundations of an ecological economics (Pearce); The case for methodological pluralism (Norgaard); Economics and ecology : a comparison of experimental methodologies and philosophies (Shogren, Nowell); Interdisciplinary research between economists and physical scientists: retrospect and prospect (Faber, Proops); Rethinking ecological and economic education: a gestalt shift (Clark); Industrial ecology: reflections on a colloquium (Ausubel); Sustainable development: a co-evolutionary view (Norgaard); Sustainable development: a critical review (Lele); Recovering the real meaning of sustainability (Shiva); The difficulty in defining sustainability (Toman); Sustainable development: what is to be done (Holmberg, Sandbrook); The concept of sustainability: origins, extensions, and usefulness for policy (Dixon, Fallon); Overview essay (Harris); On the ideological foundations of environmental policy (Underwood, King); Towards an ecological economics of sustainability (Common, Perrings); Alternative approaches to economic-environmental interactions (Barbier); Introduction to the steady-state economy (Daly); Allocation, distribution, and scale: towards an economics that is efficient, just, and sustainable (Daly); The economic growth debate: what some economists have learned but many have not (Daly); The economics of the coming spaceship Earth (Boulding); Steady-state economies and the command economy (Townsend); Allocation, distribution, and scale as determinants of environmental degradation: case studies of Haiti, El Salvador, and Costa Rica (Foy, Daly); On economics as a life science (Daly); The entropy law and the economic process in retrospect (Georgescu-Roegen); Thermodynamic and economic concepts as related to resource-use policies (Burness, Cummings, Morris, Paik); Thermodynamic and economic concepts as related to resource-use policies: comment and reply (Daly, Burness, Cummings); Economics, ethics, and the environment (Norgaard, Howarth); Neoclassical and institutional approaches to development and the environment (Soderbaum); Economics as mechanics and the demise of biological diversity (Norgaard); Reserved rationality and the precautionary principle: technological change, time, and uncertainty in environmental decision making (Perrings); Conservation reconsidered (Krutilla); The human firm in the natural environment: a socio-economic analysis of its behavior (Tomer); Overview essay (Harris); The entropy law and the economic problem (Georgescu-Roegen); Selections from "Enegy and Economic Myths" (Geogescu-Roegen); Consumption, production, and technological progress: a unified entropic approach (Dung); Is the entropy law relevant to the economics of natural resource scarcity? (Young); Is the entropy law... Comment (Townsend); Is the entropy law ...Yes of course it is! (Daly); Recycling, thermodynamics, and environmental thrift (Berry); Thermodynamics and economics (Ayres, Nair); Energy costs: a review of methods (Chapman); Energy and money (Odum); Embodied energy and economic valuation (Costanza); Energy and the U.S. economy: a biophysical perspective (Cleveland, Costanza, Hall, Kaufman); Natural resource scarcity and economic growth revisited: economic and biophysical perspectives (Cleveland); The biophysical systems world view (Peet); Energy, labor, and the conserver society (Hannon); Industrial metabolism (Ayres); Industrial input - output analysis: implications for industrial ecology (Duchin); Implementing industrial ecology (Graedel, Allenby, Linhart); Overview essay (Harris); Environmental and resource accounting: an overview (Serafy, Lutz); Three dilemmas of environmental accounting (Norgaard); Correcting national income for environmental losses: a practical solution for a theoretical dilemma (Hueting); GNP and market prices: wrong signals for sustainable economic success that mask environmental destruction (Tinbergen, Hueting); A survey of resource and environmental accounting in industrialized countries (Peskin, Lutz); Toward an exact human ecology (Slesser); Energy analysis and economic valuation (Georgescu-Roegen); Integrated environmental-economic accounting, natural resource accounts, and natural resource management in Africa (Lange, Duchin); Development, the environment, and the social rate of discount (Markandya, Pearce); Economic indicators of resource scarcity: a critical essay (Norgaard); Valuing environmental damage (Johansson); Some problems with environmental economics (Sagoff); The worth of a songbird: ecological economics as a post-normal science (Funtowicz, Ravetz); Overview essay (Krishnan); Ten reasons why northern income growth is not the solution to southern poverty (Goodland, Daly); International assistance: a problem posing as a solution (Korten); The case for free trade (Bhagwati); The perils of free trade (Daly); Trading off the future: making world trade environmentally sustainable (Ekins); Development, poverty, and the growth of the green movement in India (Bandyopadhyay, Shiva); Third world development and population (Lewis); Radical American environmentalism and wilderness preservation: a third world critique (Guha); Environmental change and violent conflict (Homer-Dixon, Boutwell, Rathjens); Introduction - global commons : site of peril, source of hope (Goodwin); Overview essay (Goodwin);Intergenerational justice as opportunity (Page); Introduction: the ethics of sustainable development (Engel); The age of plenty: a Christian view (Schumacher); The search for an environmental ethic (Callicott); Should trees have standing? - toward legal rights for natural objects (Stone); Legal rights for nature : the wrong answer to the right(s) question (Elder); Intergenerational justice in energy policy (Barry); Sustainable rural development in Latin America: building from the bottom up (Altieri, Masera); Global institutions and ecological crisis (Harris).

Abstract: This book provides summaries of some of the key works in ecological economics.

Concepts & Frameworks : Ecological Footprint

[ To Top ]Folke, Carl, et al. "Ecosystem appropriation by cities". Ambio 26 (May 1997): 167-171.

Abstract: The ecological footprint of cities in Baltic Europe and globally are estimated. The 29 largest cities of Baltic Europe appropriate for their resource consumption and waste assimilation an area of forest, agricultural, marine, and wetland ecosystems that is at least 565-1130 times larger than the area of the cities themselves. Of the global human population, 20% (1.1 billion), living in 744 large cities worldwide, appropriate for their seafood consumption as much as 25% of the globally available area of productive marine ecosystems. The same cities' appropriate of forests for assimilation of CO2 emissions exceeds the full sink capacity of the world's forests by more than 10%. If the goal as emphasized at the UN Habitat II Conference, 1996, is sustainable human settlements, the increasingly limited capacity of ecosystems to sustain urban areas has to be explicitly accounted for in city planning and development.

[ To Top ]Rees, William E. Ecological footprint : making tracks toward sustainable cities. University of British Columbia, n.d. http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/brfoot.html

[ To Top ]Wackernagel, Mathias and The Task Force on Planning Healthy & Sustainable Communities. How big is our ecological footprint? : using the concept of appropriated carrying capacity for measuring sustainability. University of British Columbia, n. d. http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/mwfoot.html

[ To Top ]Wackernagel, Mathis et al. "Ecological footprints of nations: how much nature do they use? How much nature do they have?". [paper commissioned and funded by the Earth Council for Rio +5, 13-19 March, 1997]. Xalapa, Mexico: Centre for Sustainability Studies, 1997. 32p.

Abstract: Report compares the ecological impact of 52 large nations, inhabited by 80 percent of the world population. It also shows to what extent their consumption can be supported by their local ecological capacity. One key finding is that today, humanity as a whole uses over one third more resources and eco-services than what nature can regenerate. In 1992, this ecological deficit was only one quarter. After introducing the rationale and assessment method for this study, the report explains how such biophysical analyses can help build a sustainable future.

[ To Top ]Wackernagel, Mathis and William Rees. Our ecological footprint : reducing human impact on the Earth .Gabriola Island, B.C., New Society Publishers, 1995. 160 p.

Contents: Introduction; Ecological footprints for beginners; Footprints and sustainability; Fun with footprints: methods and real-world applications; The search for sustainability strategies; Avoiding overshoot: a summary.

Abstract: Introduces a revolutionary new way to determine humanity's impact on the Earth - the ecological footprint. It presents an exciting and powerful tool for measuring and visualizing the resources required to sustain our households, communities, regions and nations.

Concepts & Frameworks : Environmental Space

[ To Top ]Buitenkamp, M., H. Venner and T. Wams (eds.). Action plan : sustainable Netherlands : report. Amsterdam: Milieudefensie, 1992. 186 p.

Contents: Environmental space (Energy, Water, Non-renewable resources, Agriculture and food, Forest and wood in 2010); Sustainable consumption in the Netherlands (Housing, home furnishings and water consumption, Agriculture and food ina sustainable Netherlands, Recreation and leisure time); Social consequences (Role of the government in a sustainable Netherlands, Trade and industry, Consumer, International aspects of the action plan, Use of environmental resources, government and social democracy, Liberal environmental policy in conformance with market forces).

Abstract: Attempts to indicate the practical implications of sustainable development, i.e. in terms of eating, living, traveling and working.

Council for the Environment. Striking a balance : advice on environmental space. The Hague, The Council, 1994. 38 p.

Contents: Introduction; The concept of environmental space; Environmental space and existing environmental policy; A sustainable environmental space; Apportionment of the environmental space; Anticipating change; Conclusions and recommendations.

Abstract : The document makes suggestions for the policy and research agenda, starting from the two pivotal notions associated with the idea of environmental space, i.e. that there are limits to the extent to which man can make use of his natural surroundings, and that there is consequently a distribution problem which has to be solved.

[ To Top ]Fjelstad, Oivind. A fair share : environmental space as a tool for changing consumption patterns. http://www.af.nfr.no/af/af-pub/rapp94-02/kap-01.html

[ To Top ]Friends of the Earth Europe. Towards sustainable Europe : the study. London: FOE, 1995. 254 p.

Contents: Introduction; Global environment and global resources; Sustainable land use in the European Union - actual status and a possible scenario for 2010; Regional resources; Population data; Consumption matrixes; Transport and environment - intersectoral problem analysis; Indicators - a compass on the road toward sustainability; Economic growth within a limited environmental space?; Sustainable economics; Environmental space strategy development between domestic economy and industrial/commercial economics; Consuming and working in our environmental space; Consumption, Environment, and the good life; Values - changing or constant?; The role of labour in Sustainable Development; Work, unpaid labour and the good life; Sustainability by design?

Abstract: This publication describes the current areas of concern regarding the degree of resource use and environmental degradation in Europe and the unsustainability of this situation. It attempts to provide a common methodology for assessing the environmental space (or quantity of energy, water, land, wood, and non-renewable resources that are used) and the resultant need for change. Environmental space for each country is considered relative to the global supply. The assessment of the environmental space relative to population (per capita) is used to bring in the social aspect of sustainable development. This study defines permitted levels of use of environmental space at the European level and discusses, more theoretically, some implications for production and consumption in Europe (eg. how much environmental space for different natural resources exists for the EU). Scenarios are described for the year 2010 with and without specific reduction targets. Matrixes reflecting the actual as well as the permitted European consumption by industrial branches are presented. The possibilities of setting different priorities, and thus adjusting production patterns and individual behavior to the environmental space available are briefly discussed. The matrices employ a standard set of sectors that include agriculture, energy supply, transport, industry (paper, steel, chemicals, construction), service (tourism/hotels). Within these sectors the environmental space of individual products is described. Information is presented on: the limits of economic growth and the implications of a no-growth strategy for a modern industrial society; the economic cost and benefit of transformation leading to sustainability; the limited role consumers can play within the dominant structures of society today, and proposals to change them; the implications these changes may hold in terms of qualifications, industrial job profiles and education systems. Furthermore, various sustainable development indicators, environmental economic indicators, social indicators and the limited value of economic criteria such as GNP are discussed.

Concepts & Frameworks : Factor 10, Factor 4, MIPS

[ To Top ]Factor 10 Club. "The Carnoules Declaration". Development Alternatives, 4(12) : p. 1-4.

Abstract: The Factor 10 Club with 16members from 10 countries, was called into being because of mounting concerns over the uncharted role of human-induced global material flows, and the ecological ramifications of their unchecked growth. The Club presents the view that a political commitment to a tenfold increase in the average resource productivity (ie. de-links economic activity to consumptive use and advocates increases in; the prices of natural resources ) of the presently industrialized countries is a prerequisite for meeting the goal of long-term global sustainability.

[ To Top ]Hansen, Karl. "Factor 10". Developing Ideas 1 (January 1996): p4.

[ To Top ]Schmidt-Bleek, Fredrich and Wuppertal Institute. "MIPS re-visited". Fresenius Environment Bulletin (1993) vol. 2: 407-412.

[ To Top ]Schmidt-Bleek, Friedrich and Wuppertal Institute for Climate,Environment, Energy. The fossil makers : Factor 10 and more. Basel: Birkhauser, 1994. 159 p.

Contents: (Selected) Introduction; 1 - Humans are a part of the biosphere; 2 Environmental policy today; 3 - MIPS - a new ecological measure; 4 - SIPS - a measure for land use; 5 - Factor Ten; 6 - Services and consumption; 7 - Design - from repair to a fresh start; 8 - The market and its signals; 9 - The international side of ecological structural change.

Abstract: This book attempts to get at the root causes of environmental changes. The authors believe this to be the material flows which we set in motion - even those which permit us to use energy. The aim of this book is to make this plausible, to draw some preliminary conclusions and to discuss these conclusions. The book begins by introducing the foundations for the requisite ecological measure by searching for an answer to the question, What is it that makes our economy so un-ecological after we put so much time and effort into improving environmental technology? The current methodologies for evaluating the environmental risks associated with economic goods are summarized. The author discusses the framework for a measure of the environmental tolerance of processes, infrastructures, and goods and services. The surface area demands of human activity are discussed, followed by consideration of the limits to abuse of the ecosystem. This is followed by the author examining the question of what services really are, as well as how purchasing decisions can be made more ecologically responsible. He comments on the limits to adjusting prices and satisfying demands by introducing technologies that are more ecologically benign. The process of product design is discussed by the author using the example of designing an ecologically optimized refrigerator. The book ends by considering how ecological structural change can be set in motion; showing that the transition to an ecologically compatible economy will have to be an international one.

[ To Top ]von Weizacker, Ernst, Amory B. Lovins and Hunter L. Lovins. Factor four : doubling wealth - halving resource use. London: EarthScan, 1997. 224 p.

Contents: Introduction: more for less; Twenty examples of revolutionizing energy productivity; Twenty examples of revolutionizing material productivity; Ten examples of revolutionizing transport productivity; Making it happen - improving profitability; Buying and selling efficiency; Reward what we want, not the opposite; Ecological tax reform; The challenge from Rio; Avalanches of matter: the forgotten agenda; Unsatisfactory part-solutions; We may have fifty years left ot close the gaps; Green economics; Trade and the environment; Non-material wealth.

Concepts & Frameworks : Green Accounting

[ To Top ]Common, Michael. Sustainability and policy : limits to economics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge U. Press, 1995. 348 p.

Contents: 1 - Introduction: Background, Major themes, Reader's guide; 2 - The world economy: Demography, National economies, International trade and capital movements, Energy production and use, Inequality and deprivation; 3 - Sustainability: The economy and the environment, The economic conceptualization of sustainability, A synthetic and operational approach?; 4 - History and perspective: Human history, Affluence and welfare, Measuring economic performance; 5 - Thinking about futures: Limits to growth ?, Economists on limits, Biologists and limits, Science and policy; 6 - Economics: A brief history of economics, Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Public sector economics; 7 - Resource and environmental economics: Property rights, Policy goals, Policy instruments, Cost-benefit analysis and discounting, Risk and uncertainty, Intergenerational equity, Assumptions and policy; 8 - Some new economics: Green accounting, An energy theory of value, Responding to uncertainty, Ecological economics; 9 - National policy: Policy objectives, Policy instruments, Carbon taxation, Basic incomes; 10 - The international dimension: International trade and sustainability, The global climate change problem, Targets for prevention policy, Instrument choice for prevention policy; 11 - Postscript .

Abstract: Two of the greatest problems facing the human race today are poverty and the threat to the natural environment. Economic growth is routinely advocated as the solution to poverty, but the natural environment is already threatened by current levels of economic activity. This book examines both economic and ecological approaches to this dilemma, and considers policy issues for industrial economies. It also includes a useful review of recent literature in the area. The author argues that economists rarely address threats to sustainability. He suggests that, while economics cannot offer a blueprint for a sustainable society, the use of economic or price incentives can help achieve social goals and address threats to sustainability.

[ To Top ]Gallon, Gary T. The role of green economics in Canada. Toronto, Environmental Economics International, 1992.

Contents : (Selected) Green economics replaces brown economics; How to foster the development of green economics: Support business initiatives, Expand research and development, Round Tables on Environment and the Economy; Three new green technologies: Twist wing windmill blade, The reusable envelope, Solmate energy saver; Green economic market growth & job creation; A new green accounting approach; Native peoples and other cultures' economies; Environmental collapse of the cod fisheries.

[ To Top ]Jesinghaus, Jochen . The pressure indices project: theory and structure. [s.l.]: The author, 1995? Various paging.

Contents: (Selected) 1 - The roles of green accounting & pressure indices; 2 - Pressure indices and valuation of environmental damages: Current approaches to valuation and aggregation, Social cost-benefit analysis - are we in the optimum?, The cake-share model - an explanation for the differences in the monetary valuation of environmental damages, The hierarchical structure of environmental policy, Functions of (Pressure) indices - the interface information - politics; 3 - Implementation - the European Commission's Pressure Indices Project: Goals of the project, Project organization, Time schedule, Some remarks on the project structure; 4 - Pressure indices and "Sustainability indicators"; 5 - The role of monetary evaluation: towards a "Green GDP"?: Increasing the efficiency of EIAs - "Avoidance costs per pressure index point", Defensive expenditures to correct GNP, WTP, budget and tax allocations to judge the "volume" of environmental policy.

Abstract : This paper focuses on the theoretical foundations of Environmental Pressure Indices.

[ To Top ]Odum, Howard T. Environmental accounting : emergy and environmental decision making. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996. 370 p.

Contents: (Selected) Preface; 1 - Introduction: Emergy and real wealth; 2 - Emergy and the energy hierarchy; 3 - Earth emergy; 4 - Environmental production and economic use; 5 - Emergy evaluation procedure; 6 - Empower through networks: emergy algebra; 7 - Evaluating environmental resources; 8 - Net emergy of fuels and electricity; 9 - Evaluating alternatives for development; 10 - Emergy of states and nations; 11 - Evaluating international exchange; 12 - Evaluating information and human service; 13 - Emergy over time; 14 - Comparison of methods; 15 - Policy perspectives; An Emergy Glossary (Campbell); Appendixes.

Abstract: This book introduces EMERGY accounting for the evaluation of environmental and economic uses. The author describes EMERGY as the unit of measure for an evaluation system that represents both the environmental values and the economic values. EMERGY measures both the work of nature and that of humans in generating products and services. By selecting choices that maximize EMERGY production and use, policies and judgments can favor those environmental alternatives that maximize real wealth, the whole economy and the public benefit. In this book, environmental accounting with EMERGY is introduced with its theoretical basis, calculation procedures, and examples of its application.

Concepts & Frameworks : Industrial Ecology

[ To Top ]Allenby, Braden R. and Deanna J. Rickards, (eds.). The greening of industrial ecosystems. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1994 . 272 p.

Contents: Industrial metabolism: theory and policy (Ayres); Energy and industrial ecology (Linden); Input-output analysis and industrial ecology (Duchin); Wastes as raw materials (Allen and Behmanesh); Economics and sustainable development (Crosson and Toman); From voluntary to regulatory pollution prevention (Anderson); International environmental law and industrial ecology (Housman); Industrial ecology: the role of government (Weinberg et al); Integrating environment and technology: design for environment (Allenby); Preventing pollution and seeking environmentally preferable alternatives in the U.S. Air Force (Morehouse); Designing the modern automobile for recycling (Klimisch); Greening the telephone: a case study (Sekutowski); The utilization-focused service economy: resource efficiency and product-life extension (Stahel); Zero-loss environmental accounting systems (Todd); Implications of industrial ecology for firms (Dillon); Design for environment: an R&D manager's perspective (Pfahl); The two faces of technology: changing perspectives in design for environment (Friedlander); Industrial ecology and design for environment: the role of universities (Ehrenfeld).

Abstract : This volume explores the new industrial ecology, an emerging framework for making environmental factors an integral part of economic and business decision making. Experts on this new frontier explore concepts and applications, including bringing international law up to par with many national laws to encourage better environmental practices; integrating environmental costs into accounting systems for better management decision making; and understanding how concepts such as design for environment, "industrial metabolism" and sustainable development will affect both manufacturing and service companies.

[ To Top ]Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Technology, Business, and Environment Program. Bibliography on industrial ecology and sustainable development . 14 p.

Contents: Industrial ecology; Industrial parks and environmental architecture; Industrial ecology - design for environment; Industrial ecology - structural economics, I/O models, and ecological/environmental economics; Industrial ecology - ecofeedback for self-regulation; General ecological works; Other sources on business and environmental management; Sustainable development; Learning organizations; Other organizations.

[ To Top ]Socolow, R. et al. (eds.). Industrial ecology and global change. New York: Cambridge U. Press, 1994. 500 p.

Contents: Industrial ecology: definition and implementation (Graedel); Industrialization as a historical phenomenon (Grubler); Changing perceptions of vulnerability (Cantor and Rayner); The human dimension of vulnerability (Chen); Global industrialization: a developing country perspective (Huq); Human impacts on the carbon and nitrogen cycles (Ayres et al); Charting development paths: a multicountry comparison of carbon dioxide emissions (Moomaw and Tullis); Reducing urban sources of methane: an experiment in industrial ecology (Hariss); Reducing carbon dioxide emissions in Russia (Kononov); Energy efficiency in China: past experience and future prospects (Zhenping); Roles for biomass energy in sustainable devlopment (Williams); Soil as a vulnerable environmental system (Schnoor and Thomas); The vulnerability of biotic diversity (Schlesinger); Global ecotoxicology: management and science (Anderson); Industrial activity and metals emissions (Nriagu); Metals loading of the environment: cadmium in the Rhine Basin (Stigliani et al); Emissions and exposure to metals: cadmium and lead (Thomas and Spiro); Nuclear power: an industrial ecology that failed? (Berkhout); Product life-cycle management to replace waste management (Braungart); Industrial ecology in the manufacturing of consumer products (France and Thomas); Design for environment: a management perspective (Paton); Prioritizing impacts in industrial ecology (Graedel et al); Finding and implementing projects that reduce waste (Nelson); Free-lunch economics for industrial ecologists (Panayotou and Zinnes); Policies to encourage clean technology (Andrews); Initiatives in Lower Saxony to link ecology to economy (Griefahn); Military-civilian conversion and the environment in Russia (Golitsyn); The political economy of raw materials extraction and trade (Bunker); Development, environment and energy efficiency (Gadgil); The industrial ecology agenda (Andrews et al)

Abstract: The goal of industrial ecology is the evolution of the world's industrial activity into a sustainable and environmentally bening system. This book is a wide-ranging exploration of this new approach to environmental problems. With contributions from a broad range of disciplines - environmental science, technology assessment, economics, policy studies - the book lays out the range of concerns encompassed by industrial ecology.

[ To Top ]Wallner, Heinz Peter and Michael Narodoslawsky. The concept of sustainable islands : cleaner production, industrial ecology, and the network paradigm as preconditions for regional sustainable development. Graz, Austria: The Authors, 1994. 8 p.

Conference: European Roundtable on Cleaner Production Programs (1994: Graz, Austria).

Abstract: The islands approach, which is a bottom-up strategy, towards sustainability is introduced. The basic assumption is that sustainability can be introduced starting from small sustainable regions. One of the main theses is that sustainability is linked to complexity of the regional network. The intensity, the speed, and comprehensiveness of internal and external interactions, as well as the connectedness of the regional network have to be changed in order to reach local sustainability.

[ To Top ]Young, John E. and Aaron Sachs. The next efficiency revolution : creating a sustainable materials economy. Worldwatch paper no. 121. Washington, D. C.: Worldwatch Institute WWI, 1994. 58 p.

Contents: An economy in the raw; Society's consuming passion; building a secondary materials economy; designing for efficiency; New markets, new investments; The economic opportunity; A revolutionary partnership; Notes.

For an extensive library of documents on Sustainable Consumption and Production, see IISD's Linkages http://www.iisd.ca/linkage/consume/consume.html