|Key organizations involved in sustainable
production and consumption|
Government of Norway, Ministry of Environment
(Sustainable Production and Consumption home page)
Myntgata 2, Postboks 8013 Dep, 0030 Oslo
Telephone: 22 24 90 90
Fax: 22 24 95 60
International Institute for Environment and Development
Environmental Economics Programme
Sustainable Consumption and Trade
3 Endsleigh Street,
London WC1H 0DD, UK
Telephone: +44 171 388 2117
Fax: +44 171 388 2826
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Work Program on Sustainable Consumption and Production)
OECD Environment Directorate
2, rue André Pascal
75775 Paris Cedex 16 France
Fax: +33 (0)126.96.36.199.99
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
External Relations Service, UNCTAD
Palais des Nations,
1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Tel: +41 22 907 12 34
Fax: +41 22 907 00 43
UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (Work Program on Sustainable Production and Consumption)
c/o Division for Sustainable Development/DESA
United Nations Plaza, Room DC2-2220
New York, New York 10017, USA
Tel: + 1 212-963-3170
Fax: + 1-212-963-4260
Mr. Ralph Chipman
UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics. Sustainable consumption activities
39-43 Quai Andre Citroen, Paris, 75739, France
Tel: +33 1 44 37 14 50
Fax: +33 1 44 37 14 74
UNEP Working Group on Sustainable Product Development
Nieuwe Achtergracht 166,
J.H. van't Hoff Institute
B-315, NL-1018 WV Amsterdam
Tel.: +31 20 525 6268
Fax: +31 20 625 8843
World Business Council for Sustainable Development
160, route de Florissant
Telephone: (41) 22 839 3100
Fax: (41) 22 839 3131
The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
Tel.: +49 (0)202 2492-0
Fax.: +49 (0)202 2492-108
Center for a New American Dream
156 College Street, 2nd Floor, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
24 Highbury Crescent, London, N5 1RX, UK
Telephone: +44 171 226 6663
Fax: +44 171 354 0607
United Nations Environment Programme (Sustainable Production and Consumption; Trade Programs)
Concepts & Frameworks : General
P. O. Box 30552 Nairobi, Kenya
Telephone: +254 2 62 1234/3292
Fax: +254 2 62 3927/3692
Bakkes, Jan and Jaap van Woerden et al (eds.).
The future of the global environment : a model-based analysis
supporting UNEP's first global environment outlook. Bilthoven,
Netherlands: Netherlands Institute for Public Health and the Environment,
1997. 154 p.
Contents: (Selected) 1 - Social and economic development
and protection of environmental resources: the core questions
and how to address them : 1.1 - Key questions, methods, and definitions,
1.2 - A world in transition, 1.3 - Structure of this report; 2
- Environmental pressure: socioeconomic driving forces and derived
demands : 2.1 - The issue, 2.2 - Economic activity and population,
2.3 - Environmental pressure: energy, material use and emissions,
2.4 - Environmental pressures: demand for land and water, 2.5
- The goals: Agenda 21 and the Conventional Development scenario,
2.6 - Are the goods considered potentially achievable?; 3 - Interactions
between land, water and the atmosphere: 3.1 - The issue, 3.2 -
The main causes of acidification and climate change: energy consumption,
industry and deforestation, 3.3 - Acidification, 3.4 - Climate
change, 3.5 - Linkage of acidification and climate change, 3.6
- The goals, 3.7 - Are the goals considered potentially achievable?,
3.8 - Response options; 4 - Use of land and water: 4.1 The issue,
4.2 - Food production and land use: past and present, 4.3 - Food
consumption and production: the future, 4.4 - Implications for
land use, 4.5 - Fresh water, 4.6 - Are the goals considered potentially
achievable?, 4.7 - Response options; 5 - Nature and its diversity:
5.1 - The issue, 5.2 - The main causes of nature loss, 5.3 - The
development of nature and its diversity, 5.4 Discussion, 5.5 -
Response options; 6 - Effects on human health: 6.1 - The issue,
6.2 - The relative importance of health determinants, 6.3 - The
health status of the world's populations, 6.4 - Are goals considered
potentially achievable?, 6.5 - Possible responses; 7 - Responses:
priorities and strategies for making progress in implementing
Agenda 21: 7.1 - Taking stock: assessing previous findings, 7.2
- Transitions to more sustainable forms of development, 7.3 -
Assessing regional challenges, 7.4 - Policy strategies to enhance
sustainable development, 7.5 - Cost indications of policies to
promote sustainable development, 7.6 - Conclusions.
Abstract: This report presents the results of an
integrated assessment of the global environment for the years
1970 to 2050. A quantitative systematic pressure - state - impact
- response framework is used for analyzing future global and regional
developments and their interlinkages. A range of factors are discussed,
these include: environmental pressures; interactions between land,
water and the atmosphere; the use of natural resources; and effects
on human health. Priorities and strategies for implementing Agenda
21 are discussed.
Bhaskar, V. and Andrew Glyn.
The north, the south and the environment : ecological constraints
and the global economy. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.,
1995. 263 p.
Contents: Introduction; Environmental sustainability
and the growth of GDP: conditions for compatibility (Ekins and
Jacobs); Northern growth and environmental constraints (Glyn);
Can the north stop consumption growth? Escaping the cycle of
work and spend (Amalric); Population growth and the environmental
crisis: beyond the "obvious" (Bhaskar); Distributive
justice and the control of global warming (Bhaskar); Enclosing
the global commons: global environmental negotiations in a north-south
conflictual approach (Lipietz); Environmental policies and north-south
trade: a selected survey of the issues (Sen); The Korean model
of development and its environmental implications (You); National
development and local environmental action - the case of the River
Narmada (Sen); Economics and ecosystems: the case of Zimbabwean
peasant households (Cavendish); Development after ecology (Sutcliffe).
Abstract: This book analyses the impact of environmental
constraints on the patterns of development in both the North and
the South, and on the relations between the two. Current inequalities
in the distribution of income, resource use and consumption mean
that constraints will have very different implications around
the world. Experts from the North and the South assess the kinds
of economic institutions, government policies and international
arrangements which are needed in order to achieve sustainable
development in both the industrial and developing world, and a
just and economically viable relationship between them.
Brandt, Barbara .
life economics : revaluing daily life. Philadelphia, PA: New
Society, 1995. 243 p.
Contents The problem of economic invisibility; The
problem of economic addiction; Beyond the textbooks: the economics
of daily life; Beyond economic addictions: making decisions that
Abstract This book describes a new economics emerging
in the world today, an economics that more fully meets human needs,
supports personal and community relationships, promotes justice
and empowerment, and is more respectful of the natural environment
than our officially recognized economic systems. It explains why
this new economics is now emerging, and how it can be made more
a reality in people's lives and communities.
Cairns, Stephanie, Barbara Campbell and Rob Macintosh.
Fine tuning taxes for energy eco-efficiency : a study commissioned
for the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy
: Greening the budget workshop October 17, 1995. Drayton Valley,
AB, The Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, 1995. 48
Contents: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Study rationale :
Eco-efficiency - towards the " Factor 10 " economy,
Why focus on taxes ?, Task force on economic instruments and disincentives
to sound environmental practices, National action programme on
climate change; 3 - Scope : Parameters of the study, "Fine-tuning"
terms of reference; 4 - Methodology and application : Define "sound
environmental practice", Assess each sectoral policy package,
Identify the results of any proposed adjustment; 5 - Findings
: CCA class 43.1 for energy conservation property, Deductibility
of business travel expenses, Scientific research and experimental
tax credit, Canadian exploration expense, Flow through shares,
CCA class 41a - new mines and major expansions, CCA on power operated
movable equipment, Atlantic investment tax credit; 6 - Summary.
Abstract : This study examines, with a view to increasing
eco-efficiency, how federal capital tax measures influence investment
or operating decisions in the energy sector, and energy purchasing
and use decisions by consumers. Potential directions for adjusting
existing tax measures to increase incentives for energy eco-efficiency
Canada. Environment Canada.
Moving towards sustainable consumption and production : Building
a community of concern and commitment : May 26-27, 1997 : Chateau
Cartier Hotel, Aylmer, Quebec. (s.l.): The authors, 1997.
1v. in various pagings.
Notes: Publication information assumed.
Contents: 1 - Introduction; Vision; Issues and challenges;
2 - Pathways; The role of pollution prevention in sustainable
production (Delphi Group): I - Introduction, II - Background -
Approaches to pollution prevention, III - Framework for pollution
prevention in Canada; IV Moving towards cleaner production; 3
- The role of pollution prevention in sustainable production (Delphi);
4 - Financing sustainable consumption & production - Engaging
capital markets (Delphi Group): I - The critical role of capital,
II - Capital markets and financing sustainability, III - Case
examples of sustainable financing and investment, IV - Issues
concerning the sustainable use of capital; V - Concluding remarks;
5 - Sustainable consumption: Issues and challenges (IndEco Strategic
Consulting): I Background and overview, II - Consumption and sustainable
development, III - Sustainable consumption and consumer behavior,
IV - Sustainable consumption practices in Canada, V - Moving toward
sustainable consumption, VI - Issues raised; VII - Concluding
remarks; 6 - Walpole Island, First Nation, Canada; Towards sustainable
consumption with Ecoteams (GAP International); 7 - The role of
economic instruments in sustainable production and consumption
(Delphi Group): I - Economic instruments, taxation & public
expenditures, II - Taxation issues and reform, III - The re-configuration
of public expenditures, IV - Environmental charges and benefits,
V - Barriers to economic instruments which support SCAP, VI -
Economic instruments: Issues for discussion, VII - Closing remarks;
8 - Green purchasing as a catalyst for sustainable production
and consumption (Delphi Group): I - Introduction, II - Scope and
definition, III - Status of green purchasing, IV - Challenges
to advancing green purchasing, V - Opportunities and responses,
VI - Leadership and best practices in green purchasing, VII -
Key policy issues for further discussion; 9 - Reducing the ecological
footprint of consumption (Rees); 10 - Product environmental management
(IndEco Strategic Consulting Inc): I - The relationship between
sustainable production and consumption and product environmental
management, II - Background and overview, III Product environmental
management in Canada, IV - Issues raised .
Abstract: This report provides the results of workshop
discussions on achieving sustainable consumption. The remainder
of this volume is a collection of papers provided by participants
in the workshops.
Cobb, Clifford, Ted Halstead and Jonathan Rowe.
The genuine progress indicator : summary of data and methodology.
San Francisco, CA: Redefining Progress, 1995. 50 p.
Contents: Foreword; Introduction : What is "the
economy?", Why growth of GDP does not equal progress, The
need for new measures of progress; Overview of the genuine progress
indicator : Summary of the GPI methodology, The centrality
of consumption; The GPI - Explanation by column; The GPI -
data by column; Discussion of results.
Abstract: This document introduces a new measure
of the economic well-being of the nation from 1950 to present.
It broadens the conventional accounting framework to include the
economic contributions of the family and community, and of the
natural habitat, along with conventionally measured economic production.
The deficiencies of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) are outlined
and the argument is made for a new measure called the Genuine
Progress Indicator (GPI). The methodology for calculating the
GPI is presented. In contrast to the GDP's doubling from the 1950s
to present, the GPI increased during the 1950s and 1960s but declined
by roughly 45 since 1970. This rate of decline accelerated between
the 1970s and the 1990s.
growth : the economics of sustainable development. Boston,
MA: Beacon, 1996. 253 p.
Contents: (Selected) Introduction: the shape of current
thought on sustainable development; Part I - Economic theory and
sustainable development: Introduction, 1 - Moving to a steady-state
economy, 2 - Elements of environmental macroeconomics, 3 - Consumption:
value added, physical transformation, and welfare; Part II - Operational
policy and sustainable development: Introduction, 4 - Operationalizing
sustainable development by investing in natural capital, 5 - Fostering
environmentally sustainable development: four parting suggestions
for the World Bank; Part III - National accounts and sustainable
development: 6 - Toward a measure of sustainable net national
product, 7 - On sustainable development and national accounts;
Part IV - Population and sustainable development: Introduction,
8 - Carrying capacity as a tool of development policy: the Ecuadoran
Amazon and Paraguayan Chaco, 9 - Marx and Malthus in Northeast
Brazil: a note on the World's largest class difference in fertility
and its recent trends; Part V - International trade and sustainable
development: Introduction, 10 - Free trade and globalization vs.
environment and community, 11 - From adjustment to sustainable
development: the obstacle of free trade; Part VI : Two pioneers
in the economics of sustainable development: Introduction, 12
- The economic thought of Frederick Soddy, 13 - On Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's
contributions to economics: an obituary essay; Part VII - Ethics,
religion, and sustainable development: Introduction, 14 - A biblical
economic principle and the sustainable economy, 15 - Sustainable
development: from religious insight to ethical principle to public
Abstract: This book argues that the idea of sustainable
development is being used in ways that are vacuous, wrong, and
probably dangerous. It argues that solutions need to be far more
radical than most people believe. Achieving sustainable development
requires that we conceive of the economy as part of the ecosystem
and, as a result, give up on the ideal of economic growth. We
need a global understanding of developing welfare that does not
entail expansion. These ideas are fundamentally radical concepts,
and the author argues that basic ideas about economic theory,
poverty, trade, and population have to be discarded or rethought.
De Sherbinin, Alex.
and consumption issues for environmentalists : a literature search
and bibliography prepared by the Population Reference Bureau for
the Pew Charitable Trusts' Global Stewardship Initiative.
Washington, D.C.: PRB, 1993. 25 p.
Durning, Alan Thein.
much is enough? : the consumer society and the future of the Earth.
Worldwatch environmental alert series. New York: W.W. Norton,
1992. 200 p.
Abstract: Argues that the linked fates of humanity
and the natural realm depend on us, the consumers, and that in
order to curtail our use of ecologically destructive things we
must cultivate the deeper, non-material sources of fulfillment
such as family and social relationships, meaningful work, and
Environment strategy Europe.
London: Camden Publishing, 1991. v. ; annual
Contents: (1995/96 ed.): Sustainable production and
consumption. Forword; Environment ministers' forum; European agenda;
OECD report; NGO agenda; Business response; Corporate responsibility
in practice; Technology and services in practice; Sector issues;
Environmental reference guide.
Friends of the Earth. FoEI
position paper for the 3rd session of the U. N. Commission on
Sustainable Development 11-28 April 1995session of the CSD.
Friends of the Earth.
Sustainable consumption : a global perspective. Amsterdam:
FOE, 1996. 72 p.
Contents: 1 - What is sustainable consumption?; 2
- The challenge of sustainable consumption; 3 - The consumption
of fossil fuels; 4 - The consumption of mineral resources; 5 -
Sustainable land use; 6 -The international agenda.
Abstract: This book discusses the concept and principles
of sustainable consumption. Focusing on different natural resources
the book argues for delinking consumption and natural resource
use. The different perspectives of the developed and less developed
countries are discussed along with their strategies for achieving
Friends of the Earth International. .
Societies : sustainable production and consumption.
Abstract: List of links to organizations dealing
with sustainable societies.
Gabriel, Yiannis and Tim Lang.
unmanageable consumer : contemporary consumption and its fragmentation.
London: Sage Publications, 1995. 213 p.
Contents: Introduction: The faces of the consumer;
1 - The emergence of contemporary consumerism; The consumer as
chooser; The consumer as communicator; The consumer as explorer;
The consumer as identity-seeker; The consumer: hedonist or artist?;
The consumer as victim; The consumer as rebel; The consumer as
activist; The consumer as citizen; The twilight of consumerism.
Abstract: This book shows how different traditions
have constructed different representations of the consumer. The
authors identify, disentangle and juxtapose approaches to contemporary
consumption. The contemporary western consumer is examined first,
followed by consideration of the consumer as a chooser, communicator,
explorer, victim, identity-seeker, hedonist or artist, rebel,
activist, and citizen. This book examines not only different academic
and everyday discourses on consumption, but also the views and
ideas of organizations and activists who represent or claim to
represent consumers. The qualities of fragmentation and unmanageability
of contemporary western consumption as part of a long-term historical
process are examined by the authors.
for balance : views of Americans on consumption, materialism and
Takoma Park, MD: Merck
Family Fund, 1995. 26 p. http://www.iisd.ca/linkage/consume/harwood.html
Abstract: Presents a report of citizen perspectives
on the issue of consumption. It is based on a series of focus
group discussions and a national survey designed to allow Americans
to frame the issue themselves - to describe the concerns, beliefs
and values they bring to bear in thinking about the role of consumption
in their lives and in society.
in progress : life beyond economics. Indianapolis, IN: Knowledge
Systems, 1991. 293 p.
Contents: Riding the tiger of change; Living Earth's
Lessons Co-Creatively; From economism to earth ethics and systems
theory; Beyond GNP; Ode to the life force; Beyond the battle of
the sexes; The indicators crisis; Greening the economy and recycling
economics; Toward a new world order; The age of light; Cosmic
Independent Commission on Population and Quality
Caring for the future: making
the decades provide a life worth living : report of the Independent
Commission on Population and Quality of Life
Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996. 359 p.
Contents: Introduction: a world in transition; Part
I - Context and challenges: 1 - The population challenge, 2 -
The social challenge: facing poverty, 3 - The ecological challenge,
4 - The economic challenge: a new production and consumption
model for the globalized economy; Part II - Towards a fresh
vision: 5 - Focusing on the goal: sustainable improvement of the
quality of life, 6 - Respecting the limits: the carrying capacity
of the Earth, 7 - Responding to needs: the caring capacity of
humankind; Part III - From vision to politics: 8 - Attitudes towards
population change: a paradigm shift, 9 - Redefining work, 10 -
Towards an alternative educational policy, 11 - From medical to
health care, 12 - Reproductive choices, 13 - Empowering women;
Part IV - New global perspectives: 14 - Mobilizing social forces
- towards a new social contract, 15 - Mobilizing resources - tapping
the markets, 16 - Conclusions and recommendations.
Abstract: This report examines the challenges that
face all countries, both rich and poor, in the last years of the
century. The Independent Commission on Population and Quality
of Life outlines a radical agenda to confront the economic, human,
and environmental crises facing the world today. This agenda includes
targets and timetables to improve the standards of health care
and education throughout the world; a tax on international financial
transactions to raise the necessary funding; a rejection of the
over reliance on free-market economics that condemns sections
of the world to poverty, ill health, and unemployment; putting
women's rights at the forefront of the effort to stabilize the
Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research
Consumption patterns: the driving
force of environmental stress : a report. United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development research paper no.3. Bombay: The
Institute, 1992. 38 p.
Conference: United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development (1992: Rio de Janeiro)
International Organization of Consumers Unions.
Beyond the year 2000 : the transition
to sustainable consumption : a policy document on environmental
. The Hague: IOCU, 1993. 51 p.
Notes: Basic document for the conference and seminar:
"Sustainable consumption" held in The Hague, 1993.
Contents: (Selected): State of the environment Climate
change: the greenhouse effect, Depletion of stratospheric ozone,
Population growth, Air pollution and acid rain, Destruction of
ecosystems: loss of biodiversity, Municipal wastes-Incineration,
composting, recycling, recycling metals, glass paper, plastics,
Industrial chemical wastes, Toxic chemicals; What is sustainable
consumption, Consumer organizations.
International Organization of Consumers Unions.
Consumers and the environment : proceedings of the IOCU Forum...4
June 1992. Penang, MY: IOCU, 1992. 83 p.
Notes: As part of the 'Independent Sectors Global
Forum', a series of parallel events held in conjunction with the
UNCED Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, IOCU organized
a public forum on sustainable consumption. The forum took the
form of a panel discussion.
Conference: IOCU Forum on Sustainable Consumption
(1992 : Rio de Janiero).
International Organization of Consumers Unions.
Proceedings of seminar on "sustainable consumption"
(Oegstgeest : April 1993). The Hague: IOCU, 112 p.
Contents: Proceedings of seminar on "sustainable
consumption" -includes: Introductory Session; Sustainable
Consumption Within Environmental Space; Response of Consumer Organizations
to the Need for More Sustainable Consumption Patterns; Environmental
Testing; Waste From Consumption; Health and Environment; Food
and the Environment; Environmental Problems and Economic Measures.
concerns : pollution, profit and quality of life. New York:
Routledge, 1996. 218 p.
Contents: 1 -Living in a material world: rough guide
to a lonely planet; 2 - Material transitions : the birth of the
industrial economy; 3 - Farewell to love canal: from industrial
afterthought to environmental foresight; 4 - A stitch in time:
the principles of prevention; 5 - Easy virtues: saving money through
pollution prevention; 6 - Persistent vices: understanding resistance
to change; 7 - Back to the future: reinventing the service economy;
8 Negotiating change: dematerialisation and the profit motive;
9 - Growth in crisis: untangling the logic of wealth; 10 - Beyond
material concerns: regaining quality of life.
Abstract: This book is a non-technical introduction
to preventative environmental management. The author describes
the technical tasks involved in reducing to a minimum the quantity
of materials used to supply services to people. It presents new
perspectives on key environmental issues - pollution prevention,
ecological economics, sustainability limits, consumer behavior
and government policy - and draws on detailed case studies from
across the industrial world.
May, Peter H. and Ronaldo Seroa da Motta, (eds.).
Pricing the planet : economic analysis
for sustainable development.
Columbia University Press, 1996. 220 p.
Contents: Introduction (May, Seroa da Motta); 1 -
Sustainability; 2 - Consumption patterns - The driving force of
environmental stress (Parikh); 3 - A tradable carbon entitlements
approach to global warming policy: Sustainable allocations (Rose,
Stevens); 4 - Back-of-the-envelope estimates of environmental
damage costs in Mexico (Margulis); 5 - Health costs associated
with air pollution in Brazil (Seroa da Motta, Mendes); 6 - Managing
the transition to sustainable development: The role of economic
incentives (Tietenberg); 7 - Ecological economics: Creating a
transdisciplinary science (Costanza); 8 - Carrying capacity as
a tool of development policy: The Ecuadoran Amazon and the Paraguayan
Chaco (Daly); 9 - Green accounting for sustainable development
(Bartelmus); 10 - Measuring sustainable income: The cases of mineral
and forest depletion in Brazil (Seroa da Motta, May).
Abstract: This volume contains a selection from seminar
proceedings held during the Symposium and Exhibit of Environmental
Technologies (ECOTECH) held in Rio de Janeiro on June 2, 1992
as part of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(UNCED). The authors from both developed and developing countries
emphasize the need for policy and technology alternatives that
are economically viable and ecologically sound. Essays address
specific changes that could help to foster sustainable development,
based on principles of ecological economics and giving closer
attention to carrying capacity. Through analyses of economic models
the authors describe ways to prevent long-term depletion of natural
resources. Finally, environmental pollution and its effects on
human health are considered. The costs related to containing such
problems and how policy might be changed to encourage more effective
use of natural resources are discussed.
world : a global family portrait
Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 1995. 256 p
Contents: (Selected) Introduction; Betting the planet;
Methodology; Africa; Televisions of the world; Asia; Latin America;
North America; Islands; Meals of the World; Europe; Toilets of
the world; Middle East; Appendices; Afterword.
Abstract: This book presents a series of descriptions
of families and their material possessions from around the world.
Through the discussion of photographs and statistics the author
provides information that a reader can use to compare and contrast
the lifestyles of people in different countries.
Merck Family Fund.
the American dream : the search for sustainable consumption :
Takoma Park, MD: Merck
Family Fund, 1995. 18 p. http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/merck.html
Abstract: Reports on a conference held April 1995
to discuss the question "how do we create a society that
does not steal from the future?".
and consumption in relation to environment and development.
Oxford, UK: The author, 1996. 30 p.
Notes: Unpublished monograph.
Norway. Ministry of Environment.
Roundtable Conference on Sustainable Production and Consumption
(1995 : Oslo, Norway).
Norway. Ministry of the Environment.
Symposium : sustainable consumption [held] 19-20 January, 1994
[in] Oslo, Norway. Oslo: Norway Ministry of the Environment,
1994. 180 p.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Expert seminar on sustainable consumption
and production patterns, Summary report. Massachusetts
Institute of Technology: Cambridge, MA (18 - 20 December 1994)
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
OECD workshop on sustainable consumption and production : clarifying
the concepts. (Final report) (Rosendal, Norway : July 1995).
Paris: OECD, 1995. 49 p.
Contents: Introduction; Analysis of the key concepts;
Sustainable consumption concepts and policy implications; Conclusions
and issues for further consideration.
Abstract: This paper has been prepared on the basis
of a literature review of a number of concepts, identified by
the OECD secretariat as those which, to date, have most often
been introduced into the debate surrounding the need to modify
consumption patterns. Concepts reviewed include: carrying capacity;
environmental utilization space or ecospace; the steady state
economy; ecological "footprints"; green accounting;
World food trends and future food security. Washington,
DC: The International Food Policy Research Institute, 1994. 25
Contents: Feeding the world: availability and access
to food; Can yield gains keep pace with population growth?; The
future of food trade and aid; Four key factors will influence
future food production and consumption; No time for complacency.
Abstract: The report attempts to answer the questions:
What can be learned from current world food trends?; Are production
trends of the last 30 years likely to continue?; Will the future
bring global food surpluses or increasing food scarcity and widespread
hunger?; among others.
Prescott, Jacques and Jeqan-Pierre Drapeau.
"Measuring the environmental impact of natural resource consumption."
Ecodecision (Spring 1995): 76-79.
Ramphal, Sir Shridath.
Consumption: the other side of population for development:
address to the International Conference on Population and Development
on behalf of The Commission on Global Governance and the Earth
Council, Cairo, 6 September 1994. San Jose, Costa Rica: Earth
Council, 1994. 17p.
Redclift, Michael. Wasted
: counting the cost of global consumption. London, UK: Earthscan,
1996. 173 p.
Contents: Chapter One - Introduction; Chapter Two
- The earth summit; Chapter Three - Meeting environmental targets;
Chapter Four - The global economy and consumption; Chapter Five
- Managing global resources; Chapter Six - Metabolizing nature;
Chapter Seven - Sustainability and social commitments; Chapter
Eight - Local environmental action.
Abstract: This book contends that sustainability
will not be achieved by inventing management techniques to combat
the contradictions of development. Rather, it can only be achieved
by incorporating a knowledge of the consequences of our behavior
into the behavior itself. This book outlines the importance of
this objective, and its implications. To achieve sustainability
the author argues that we need to recover our control over consumption
rather than invent new institutions to manage its consequences.
Rogers, Adam. (ed.). Taking
action : an environmental guide for you and your community.
Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP, 1995. 224 p.
Contents: (Selected) Part I - The foundation for
sustainable action: 1 - The global environment, 2 - The global
economy, 3 - The role of communities, 4 - Organizing for community
action, 5 - The community toolbox; Part II - Challenges and opportunities:
6 - Population and consumption, 7 - Energy, 8 - Waste,
9 - The atmosphere, 10 - Biodiversity, 11 - Freshwater resources,
12 - Oceans and coasts, 13 - Forests, 14 - Agriculture and land
use, 15 - Desertification; Appendices.
Abstract: This book explores how various groups of
people (eg., women, business and industry, youth, children, indigenous
people, non-governmental organizations, etc.) and other members
of civil society can take practical action at the community level
to address environmental problems and establish sustainable relationships
with the natural world around them. The first part of the book
provides an overview of the different communities and how they
can be organized for community action. A toolbox of techniques
are included to facilitate organizing the community. The second
part takes an issue based approach to discuss the challenges and
opportunities that communities are faced with when confronting
environmental problems. Population and consumption, energy, and
waste management are among the different issues discussed.
Changing course : a global business perspective on development
and the environment. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992. 374
Contents: The business of sustainable development.
Pricing the environment: markets, costs and instruments. Energy
and the marketplace. Capital markets: financing sustainable development.
Trade and sustainable development. Managing corporate change.
The innovation process. Technology cooperation. Sustainable management
of renewable resources: agriculture and forestry. Leadership for
sustainable development in developing countries. Case studies:
successful steps toward sustainable development: Managing change
in business, managing business partnerships, managing stakeholder
partnerships, managing financial partnerships, managing cleaner
production, managing cleaner products, managing sustainable resource
use. App.1. Priorities for a rational energy strategy.
Schor, Juliet. Toward
sustainable consumption : redefining the American dream. [sl]
: The Author, 1995. 28 p.
Abstract: The issue of sustainable consumption is
finally emerging on the American scene. Prompted by the Rio Summit,
the 1990s recession, overwork, and a painful hangover from the
status-oriented consumption binge of the 1980s, individuals, the
media, and some institutions are beginning to think the unthinkable.
Maybe the American dream isn't all its cracked up to be. Perhaps
the endless pursuit of more is becoming too costly.
Segal, Jerome M. "Alternatives
to the mass consumption society". Report from the Institute
for Philosophy & Public Policy 15 (Fall, 1995) : 35-39.
Speth, James Gustave.
Environmentally unsustainable consumption patterns: is there
a way out? Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1991.
Notes: Background paper prepared for the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).
"Sustainable Consumption". Warmer Bulletin
(November, 1995) : 20-21.
United States. President's Council on Sustainable
Development. Population and consumption
: task force report. Washington, D.C., PCSD, 1996 . 97 p.
Contents (Selected) Preface; Executive summary; Introduction;
Chapter 1 - Population: History for the U.S. population issue,
Demographic trends, Findings and policy recommendations: fertility,
immigration, population distribution, Conclusions on population;
Chapter 2 - Consumption: History and scope of the consumption
issue, Findings and policy recommendations: using economic policy
instruments, educating consumers, a new material economy, technology
for sustainability, Conclusions on consumption; Chapter 3 - Conclusions;
Chapter 4 - Goals and policy recommendations; Appendices.
Abstract This task force report focuses on the topic
of population and consumption. The task force discussed population
growth in the United States and concludes that population must
be stabilized as soon as possible. Recommendations for achieving
this goal included the following: education and support for contraception
and reproductive health; increasing educational opportunities
for adolescents using community-orientated, peer based, and adult
mentoring programs; develop public-private partnerships to reduce
poverty, especially for women; developing immigration and foreign
policies to reduce illegal immigration; initiating research into
national population distribution and its affect on sustainable
development prospects. The task force also concluded that the
United States must move toward greater material and energy efficiency
in all production and use of goods and services. Policy recommendations
to achieve this goal included: shifting the tax burden from labor
and investment toward consumption; reducing and eliminating inefficient
and environmentally harmful government subsidies; establishing
federal "eco-labelling" procedures; change government
procurement policies to increase the use of environmentally preferable
products; educate citizens about consumer practices and choices
to reduce consumption; encourage manufacturers to insure appropriate
recycling, reuse, and disposal of all packaging; issue federal
guidelines and models for municipal volume-based and weight-based
household waste collection systems and curbside recycling programs;
adopt state and local programs to curb the flow of toxic materials
into municipal waste streams; develop civilian technology in partnership
with the federal government to provide new ways to increase materials
and energy efficiency.
Wann, David. Deep design
: pathways to a livable future. Washington, Island Press,
1996. 216 p
Contents: (Selected) Foreword (Hawken); 1 - Deep
design: from the visionary to the pragmatic; 2 - The social-environmental
connection: what do we want, and how can design deliver it?; 3
- Design at the molecular level: pathways to chemicals that fit;
4 - In search of the soft path: efficiency and renewable energy;
5 - Re-envisioning agriculture: pathways to regenerative systems;
6 - A near-perfect world, if you're a wheel: designing communities
that work; 7 - Design criteria that work: how should we think
about design?; 8 - Design for environment: making it better; 9
- The evolution of design species: toward a best-case scenario
of diversity, conservation, and caretaking .
Abstract : This book introduces and discusses a new
design philosophy that considers ecological as well as the sociological
limits within the design process. The author considers different
approaches to deep design that range from Aikido Engineering,
a form of engineering that seeks to utilize natural forces and
succeed through a path of least resistance, to industrial ecology
where a systems approach is applied to materials and resource
flows reaching beyond the actual production facility. Each approach
is introduced and examples of their application are provided and
discussed. Examples include the design of buildings, urban sewage
treatment facilities, computers, communities, industrial facilities,
wind generation systems and agriculture without pesticides.
World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
Sustainable production and consumption: a business perspective.
Geneva, Switzerland: WBCSD, 1996. 30 p.
Contents: (Selected) Executive summary; Chapter 1
- Sustainable production and consumption; Chapter 2 - Industrial
ecology : a conceptual framework for SP & C; Chapter 3 - Making
the link: SP & C and business strategy; Chapter 4 - Conclusion
and recommendations; WBCSD Working group members.
Concepts & Frameworks : Carrying Capacity
Brown, Lester R. and Hal Kane.
Full house : reassessing the Earth's population carrying capacity.
New York: Norton & Company, 1994 . 261 p.
Contents: Entering an new era; Food insecurity; Ninety
million more; Climbing the food chain; Overharvesting the oceans;
Overgrazing rangelands; Limits of the plow; Spreading water scarcity;
The fertilizer falloff; Struggling to raise yields; Environmental
deductions; Carrying capacity: the big four; Carrying capacity:
the next nine; The growing imbalance; Reassessing population policy;
Turning the tide.
Abstract: In this book, the authors propose a global
strategy to restore food security and a budget to implement it.
Their global food security budget calls for stepped-up expenditures
on both sides of the food/population equation. It includes investments
not only to provide family planning services to all who want them,
but also to eliminate the underlying causes of high fertility,
such as female illiteracy. It also includes investments in an
extensive reforestation and soil conservation effort, one that
will arrest the deterioration of the agricultural resource base.
Cohen, Joel E. How
many people can the Earth support? New
York: W. W. Norton, 1995. 532 p
Contents: Part 1 - Introduction: 1 - Between choices
and constraints; Part 2 - Past Human Population Growth: 2 - Four
evolutions in population growth, 3 - People control the growth
of non-human population, 4 - People control the growth of human
populations, 5 - Human population history in numbers and graphs,
6 - The uniqueness of the present relative to the past; Part 3
- Future Human Population Growth: 7 - Projection methods - the
hazy crystal ball, 8 - Scenarios of future population, 9 - What
do we know for sure about the future of global population?; Part
4 - The Human Carrying Capacity of the Earth: 10 - Eight estimates
of human carrying capacity, 11 - Estimates of human carrying capacity:
a survey of four centuries, 12 - Carrying capacity in ecology
and applied ecology, 13 - Human choices, 14 - Water: a case study
of natural constraints, 15 - Natural constraints, 16 - Human carrying
capacity: an overview; Part 5 - Conclusion: Human Caring Capacity:
17 - Entering the zone, 18 - Looking beyond the next hill - some
Abstract : This book reviews the history of population
growth forecasts. The author details the problems that are involved
in forecasting population noting the limitations of present methods.
Historical estimates of the human carrying capacity of the earth
are discussed and the author examines the application of ecological
concepts of carrying capacity to humans. Limiting factors on carrying
capacity are considered, including: Distribution of well-being;
Technological developments; Domestic and international political
institutions; Domestic and international economic arrangements;
Domestic and international demographic arrangements; Physical,
chemical and biological environments; Variability or stability
of population; Risk or robustness of population; Time horizons;
Fashions, tastes and moral values. Water is discussed as a case
study of a natural constraint on human carrying capacity. The
author concludes by making suggestions towards the improvement
of population problems.
Daily, Gretchen C. and Paul R. Ehrlich.
"Population, sustainability and Earth's carrying capacity
". BioScience, 1992 . 9 p.
Abstract : Presents a framework for estimating population
sizes and lifestyles that could be sustained without undermining
Dale, Ann, John Robinson and Christine Massey.
Reconciling human welfare and ecological carrying capacity
: a series of workshops. Vancouver, BC, Sustainable Development
Research Institute, 1995. 21 p.
Contents: Preamble; 1 - The limits of ecological
carrying capacity (Regier); 2 - The economics of ecological limits
(Lipsey); 3 - Reconciling ecological and economic imperatives
(Hanson); 4 - Social and cultural dimensions of development issues
Engelman, Robert. "Imagining
a stabilized atmosphere : population and consumption interactions
in greenhouse gas emissions". Journal of Environment and
Development 4 (Winter 1995): 111-140.
Abstract: The roles of both population and personal
consumption have been difficult to address in analyzing the causative
factors in human-induced climate change. Argues that if population
growth is considered in the context of a global effort to stabilize
atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases equitably, its
importance emerges in a new light. Seen this way, population growth
in both developing and developed countries adds to the pre-existing
and considerable momentum of greenhouse-driven climate change
itself. As population rises per capita atmosphere-stabilizing
emissions fall, further restricting the sustainable use of fossil
fuels on an individual basis. This relationship is best illustrated
in a hypothetical industrial carbon dioxide emissions trading
regime, which could be negotiated through the Framework Convention
on Climate Change.
Engelman, Robert. Stabilizing
the atmosphere : population, consumption and greenhouse gases.
Washington, D.C.: Population Action International, 1994. 48 p.
Engelman, Robert and Pamela Leroy.
Conserving land : population and sustainable food production.
Washington, D.C.: Population Action International, 1995. 48 p.
Meadows, Donella H. The
limits to growth : a report for the Club of Rome's Project on
the Predicament of Mankind. New York: New American Library,
1972 . 207 p.
Roy, Marlene A. Carrying
Capacity....[selected sources]. Winnipeg, MB: International
Institute for Sustainable Development, 1995. http://iisd.ca/ic/info/ss9506.htm
Contents: Brief concept statement
followed by list of books, articles and organizations on or related
to carrying capacity.
Concepts & Frameworks : Ecological Economics
Constanza, Robert, Olman Segura and Juan Martinez-Alier,
(eds). Getting down to Earth : practical
applications of ecological economics. Washington, DC, Island
Press, 1996 . 472 p.
Contents: 1 - Integrated envisioning, analysis, and
implementation of a sustainable and desirable society (Costanza,
Segura, Martinez-Alier); PART I - VISION : 2 - Socio-ecological
principles for a sustainable society (Holmerg, Robert, Eriksson),
3 - Consumption: Value added, physical transformation, and
welfare (Daly), 4 - Complexity, problem solving, and sustainable
societies (Tainter), 5 - From ecological economics to productive
ecology: Perspectives on sustainable development from the south
(Leff), 6 - Social and ethical dimensions of ecological economics
(Gupta), 7 - Envisioning a sustainable world (Meadows); PART II
- ANALYSIS : 8 - Towards an economics for environmental sustainability
(Ekins), 9 - Ecological and economic distribution conflicts (Martinez-Alier,
O'Connor), 10 - Technological intensity, technological quality,
and sustainable development (Gallopin), 11 - Renewable resource
appropriation by cities (Folke, Larsson, Sweitzer), 12 - Emergent
complexity and procedural rationality: Post-normal science for
sustainability (O'Connor, Faucheux, Froger, Funtowicz, Munda),
13 - Integrating spatially explicit ecological and economic models:
theory and application in the Patuxen River Watershed, Maryland
(Costanza, Wainger, Bockstael), 14 - Ecological economics: The
second stage (Duchin), 15 - Modelling the dynamics of resource
depletion, substitution, recycling, and technical change in extractive
industries (Ruth, Cleveland); PART III - IMPLEMENTATION : 16 -
Institutional change and development towards sustainability (Opschoor),
17 - Creating the institutional setting for sustainability in
Latin America (Dourojeanni), 18 - Applying agroecology to improve
peasant farming systems in Latin America: an impact assessment
of NGO strategies (Altieri, Yurjevic, Von der Weid, Sanchez),
19 - Property rights, people, and the environment (Hanna), 20
- Will new property rights regimes in Central and Eastern Europe
serve nature conservation purposes? (Zylicz), 21 - Valuing social
sustainability: Environmental recuperation on Fevela Hillsides
in Rio de Janeiro (May, Pastuk), 22 - Resources planning should
integrate conservation and development needs: the case of Tegucigalpa's
water (Quesada-Mateo), 23 - The political dimension of implementing
environmental reform: Lessons from Costa Rica (Kaimowitz, Segura),
24 - Envisioning sustainable alternatives within the framework
of the UNCED process (Barcena, Silveira).
Abstract : This volume contains a collection of papers
produced by participants in a workshop that followed the Third
Biannual Conference of the International Society for Ecological
Economics held October 24-28, 1994 in San Jose, Costa Rica. The
first chapter synthesizes and summarizes the many perspectives
that were discussed, and delineates the remainder of the book.
The first section of the book discusses ecological economics and
addresses the envisioning aspect of the problem of achieving sustainability.
The second section provides analysis of complex adaptive systems
in light of the emerging ecological economics vision of sustainability.
The final section is devoted to discussions of means of implementing
the ecological economic vision that includes institutional changes
necessary for achieving sustainability. Other papers look at integrated
ecological accounting and modelling, changes to property rights
regimes necessary for implementing sustainability, and the implementation
of UNCED. Numerous case studies from Latin America consider the
importance of equity.
Daly, Herman E. and Kenneth N. Townsend, (eds.).
Valuing the earth : economics, ecology, ethics. Cambridge,
MA, MIT Press, 1993. 387 p.
Contents: Ecology : ultimate means and biophysical
contraints - Introduction (Daly, Townsend); Why isn't everyone
as scared as we are (Ehrlich, Paul & Ehrlich, Anne); Availability,
entropy, and the laws of thermodynamics (Ehrlich, Ehrlich, Holdren);
The entropy law and the economic problem (Georgescu-Roegen); Selections
from "Energy and Economic Myths" (Georgescu-Roegen);
Exponential growth as a transient phenomenon in human history
(Hubbert); The tragedy of the commons (Hardin); Second thoughts
on "The tragedy of the commons" (Hardin). Ethics: the
ultimate end and value constraints - Introduction (Daly, Townsend);
The age of plenty : a Christian view (Schumacher); Buddhist economics
(Schumacher); The purpose of wealth : a historial perspective
(Smith); Ecology, ethics and theology (Cobb); The abolition of
man (Lewis). Economics: interaction of ends and means - Introduction
(Daly, Townsend); On economics as a life science (Daly); Sustainable
growth: an impossibility theorem (Daly); Steady-state economics
and the command economy (Townsend); The Economics of the coming
spaceship earth (Boulding); Spaceship earth revisited (Boulding);
Using economic incentives to maintain our environment (Tietenberg);
The steady-state economy: toward a political economy of biophysical
equilibrium and moral growth (Daly); Postscript - some common
misunderstandings and further issues concerning a steady-state
Krishnan, Rajaram, Jonathan M. Harris and Neva
R. Goodwin (eds.). A survey of ecological
economics. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1995. 384 p.
Contents: Overview essay (Harris); Historical roots
for ecological economics biophysical versus allocative approaches
(Christensen); The teleological view of wealth: a historical perspective
(Smith); The convergence of neo-Ricardian and embodied energy
theories of value and price (Judson); Energy and energetics in
economic theory: a review essay (Mirowski); Introduction to Ecological
Economics: Energy, Environment and Society (Martinez-Alier, Schlupmann);
The history of the future (Martinez-Alier, Schlupmann); Biophysical
and Marxist Economics: learning from each other (Kaufmann); Biophysical
economics : historical perspective and current research trends
(Cleveland); World environmental history and economic development
(Richards); The historical roots of our ecological crisis (White);
The case that the world has reached limits (Goodland); One part
wisdom : the great debate (Harrison); Environmental significance
of development theory (Trainer); Overview essay (Harris); Toward
an ecological economics (Costanza, Daly); Foundations of an ecological
economics (Pearce); The case for methodological pluralism (Norgaard);
Economics and ecology : a comparison of experimental methodologies
and philosophies (Shogren, Nowell); Interdisciplinary research
between economists and physical scientists: retrospect and prospect
(Faber, Proops); Rethinking ecological and economic education:
a gestalt shift (Clark); Industrial ecology: reflections on
a colloquium (Ausubel); Sustainable development: a co-evolutionary
view (Norgaard); Sustainable development: a critical review (Lele);
Recovering the real meaning of sustainability (Shiva); The difficulty
in defining sustainability (Toman); Sustainable development: what
is to be done (Holmberg, Sandbrook); The concept of sustainability:
origins, extensions, and usefulness for policy (Dixon, Fallon);
Overview essay (Harris); On the ideological foundations of environmental
policy (Underwood, King); Towards an ecological economics of sustainability
(Common, Perrings); Alternative approaches to economic-environmental
interactions (Barbier); Introduction to the steady-state economy
(Daly); Allocation, distribution, and scale: towards an economics
that is efficient, just, and sustainable (Daly); The economic
growth debate: what some economists have learned but many have
not (Daly); The economics of the coming spaceship Earth (Boulding);
Steady-state economies and the command economy (Townsend);
Allocation, distribution, and scale as determinants of environmental
degradation: case studies of Haiti, El Salvador, and Costa Rica
(Foy, Daly); On economics as a life science (Daly); The entropy
law and the economic process in retrospect (Georgescu-Roegen);
Thermodynamic and economic concepts as related to resource-use
policies (Burness, Cummings, Morris, Paik); Thermodynamic and
economic concepts as related to resource-use policies: comment
and reply (Daly, Burness, Cummings); Economics, ethics, and the
environment (Norgaard, Howarth); Neoclassical and institutional
approaches to development and the environment (Soderbaum); Economics
as mechanics and the demise of biological diversity (Norgaard);
Reserved rationality and the precautionary principle: technological
change, time, and uncertainty in environmental decision making
(Perrings); Conservation reconsidered (Krutilla); The human firm
in the natural environment: a socio-economic analysis of its behavior
(Tomer); Overview essay (Harris); The entropy law and the economic
problem (Georgescu-Roegen); Selections from "Enegy and Economic
Myths" (Geogescu-Roegen); Consumption, production, and
technological progress: a unified entropic approach (Dung);
Is the entropy law relevant to the economics of natural resource
scarcity? (Young); Is the entropy law... Comment (Townsend); Is
the entropy law ...Yes of course it is! (Daly); Recycling,
thermodynamics, and environmental thrift (Berry); Thermodynamics
and economics (Ayres, Nair); Energy costs: a review of methods
(Chapman); Energy and money (Odum); Embodied energy and economic
valuation (Costanza); Energy and the U.S. economy: a biophysical
perspective (Cleveland, Costanza, Hall, Kaufman); Natural resource
scarcity and economic growth revisited: economic and biophysical
perspectives (Cleveland); The biophysical systems world view (Peet);
Energy, labor, and the conserver society (Hannon); Industrial
metabolism (Ayres); Industrial input - output analysis: implications
for industrial ecology (Duchin); Implementing industrial ecology
(Graedel, Allenby, Linhart); Overview essay (Harris); Environmental
and resource accounting: an overview (Serafy, Lutz); Three
dilemmas of environmental accounting (Norgaard); Correcting
national income for environmental losses: a practical solution
for a theoretical dilemma (Hueting); GNP and market prices: wrong
signals for sustainable economic success that mask environmental
destruction (Tinbergen, Hueting); A survey of resource and environmental
accounting in industrialized countries (Peskin, Lutz); Toward
an exact human ecology (Slesser); Energy analysis and economic
valuation (Georgescu-Roegen); Integrated environmental-economic
accounting, natural resource accounts, and natural resource management
in Africa (Lange, Duchin); Development, the environment, and the
social rate of discount (Markandya, Pearce); Economic indicators
of resource scarcity: a critical essay (Norgaard); Valuing environmental
damage (Johansson); Some problems with environmental economics
(Sagoff); The worth of a songbird: ecological economics as a post-normal
science (Funtowicz, Ravetz); Overview essay (Krishnan); Ten reasons
why northern income growth is not the solution to southern poverty
(Goodland, Daly); International assistance: a problem posing as
a solution (Korten); The case for free trade (Bhagwati); The perils
of free trade (Daly); Trading off the future: making world trade
environmentally sustainable (Ekins); Development, poverty, and
the growth of the green movement in India (Bandyopadhyay, Shiva);
Third world development and population (Lewis); Radical American
environmentalism and wilderness preservation: a third world critique
(Guha); Environmental change and violent conflict (Homer-Dixon,
Boutwell, Rathjens); Introduction - global commons : site of peril,
source of hope (Goodwin); Overview essay (Goodwin);Intergenerational
justice as opportunity (Page); Introduction: the ethics of sustainable
development (Engel); The age of plenty: a Christian view (Schumacher);
The search for an environmental ethic (Callicott); Should trees
have standing? - toward legal rights for natural objects (Stone);
Legal rights for nature : the wrong answer to the right(s) question
(Elder); Intergenerational justice in energy policy (Barry); Sustainable
rural development in Latin America: building from the bottom up
(Altieri, Masera); Global institutions and ecological crisis (Harris).
Abstract: This book provides summaries of some of
the key works in ecological economics.
Concepts & Frameworks : Ecological Footprint
Folke, Carl, et al. "Ecosystem
appropriation by cities". Ambio 26 (May 1997): 167-171.
Abstract: The ecological footprint of cities in Baltic
Europe and globally are estimated. The 29 largest cities of Baltic
Europe appropriate for their resource consumption and waste assimilation
an area of forest, agricultural, marine, and wetland ecosystems
that is at least 565-1130 times larger than the area of the cities
themselves. Of the global human population, 20% (1.1 billion),
living in 744 large cities worldwide, appropriate for their seafood
consumption as much as 25% of the globally available area of productive
marine ecosystems. The same cities' appropriate of forests for
assimilation of CO2 emissions exceeds the full sink capacity of
the world's forests by more than 10%. If the goal as emphasized
at the UN Habitat II Conference, 1996, is sustainable human settlements,
the increasingly limited capacity of ecosystems to sustain urban
areas has to be explicitly accounted for in city planning and
Rees, William E. Ecological
footprint : making tracks toward sustainable cities. University
of British Columbia, n.d. http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/brfoot.html
Wackernagel, Mathias and The Task Force on Planning
Healthy & Sustainable Communities. How
big is our ecological footprint? : using the concept of appropriated
carrying capacity for measuring sustainability. University
of British Columbia, n. d. http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/mwfoot.html
Wackernagel, Mathis et al.
"Ecological footprints of nations: how much nature do
they use? How much nature do they have?". [paper commissioned
and funded by the Earth Council for Rio +5, 13-19 March, 1997].
Xalapa, Mexico: Centre for Sustainability Studies, 1997. 32p.
Abstract: Report compares the ecological impact of
52 large nations, inhabited by 80 percent of the world population.
It also shows to what extent their consumption can be supported
by their local ecological capacity. One key finding is that today,
humanity as a whole uses over one third more resources and eco-services
than what nature can regenerate. In 1992, this ecological deficit
was only one quarter. After introducing the rationale and assessment
method for this study, the report explains how such biophysical
analyses can help build a sustainable future.
Wackernagel, Mathis and William Rees.
Our ecological footprint : reducing human impact on the Earth
.Gabriola Island, B.C., New Society Publishers, 1995. 160
Contents: Introduction; Ecological footprints for
beginners; Footprints and sustainability; Fun with footprints:
methods and real-world applications; The search for sustainability
strategies; Avoiding overshoot: a summary.
Abstract: Introduces a revolutionary new way to determine
humanity's impact on the Earth - the ecological footprint. It
presents an exciting and powerful tool for measuring and visualizing
the resources required to sustain our households, communities,
regions and nations.
Concepts & Frameworks : Environmental Space
Buitenkamp, M., H. Venner and T. Wams (eds.).
Action plan : sustainable Netherlands : report. Amsterdam:
Milieudefensie, 1992. 186 p.
Contents: Environmental space (Energy, Water, Non-renewable
resources, Agriculture and food, Forest and wood in 2010); Sustainable
consumption in the Netherlands (Housing, home furnishings and
water consumption, Agriculture and food ina sustainable Netherlands,
Recreation and leisure time); Social consequences (Role of the
government in a sustainable Netherlands, Trade and industry, Consumer,
International aspects of the action plan, Use of environmental
resources, government and social democracy, Liberal environmental
policy in conformance with market forces).
Abstract: Attempts to indicate the practical implications
of sustainable development, i.e. in terms of eating, living, traveling
Council for the Environment.
Striking a balance : advice on environmental space. The
Hague, The Council, 1994. 38 p.
Contents: Introduction; The concept of environmental
space; Environmental space and existing environmental policy;
A sustainable environmental space; Apportionment of the environmental
space; Anticipating change; Conclusions and recommendations.
Abstract : The document makes suggestions for the
policy and research agenda, starting from the two pivotal notions
associated with the idea of environmental space, i.e. that there
are limits to the extent to which man can make use of his natural
surroundings, and that there is consequently a distribution problem
which has to be solved.
Fjelstad, Oivind. A
fair share : environmental space as a tool for changing consumption
Friends of the Earth Europe. Towards
sustainable Europe : the study. London:
FOE, 1995. 254 p.
Contents: Introduction; Global environment and global
resources; Sustainable land use in the European Union - actual
status and a possible scenario for 2010; Regional resources; Population
data; Consumption matrixes; Transport and environment - intersectoral
problem analysis; Indicators - a compass on the road toward sustainability;
Economic growth within a limited environmental space?; Sustainable
economics; Environmental space strategy development between domestic
economy and industrial/commercial economics; Consuming and working
in our environmental space; Consumption, Environment, and the
good life; Values - changing or constant?; The role of labour
in Sustainable Development; Work, unpaid labour and the good life;
Sustainability by design?
Abstract: This publication describes the current
areas of concern regarding the degree of resource use and environmental
degradation in Europe and the unsustainability of this situation.
It attempts to provide a common methodology for assessing the
environmental space (or quantity of energy, water, land, wood,
and non-renewable resources that are used) and the resultant need
for change. Environmental space for each country is considered
relative to the global supply. The assessment of the environmental
space relative to population (per capita) is used to bring in
the social aspect of sustainable development. This study defines
permitted levels of use of environmental space at the European
level and discusses, more theoretically, some implications for
production and consumption in Europe (eg. how much environmental
space for different natural resources exists for the EU). Scenarios
are described for the year 2010 with and without specific reduction
targets. Matrixes reflecting the actual as well as the permitted
European consumption by industrial branches are presented. The
possibilities of setting different priorities, and thus adjusting
production patterns and individual behavior to the environmental
space available are briefly discussed. The matrices employ a standard
set of sectors that include agriculture, energy supply, transport,
industry (paper, steel, chemicals, construction), service (tourism/hotels).
Within these sectors the environmental space of individual products
is described. Information is presented on: the limits of economic
growth and the implications of a no-growth strategy for a modern
industrial society; the economic cost and benefit of transformation
leading to sustainability; the limited role consumers can play
within the dominant structures of society today, and proposals
to change them; the implications these changes may hold in terms
of qualifications, industrial job profiles and education systems.
Furthermore, various sustainable development indicators, environmental
economic indicators, social indicators and the limited value of
economic criteria such as GNP are discussed.
Concepts & Frameworks : Factor 10, Factor
Factor 10 Club. "The
Carnoules Declaration". Development Alternatives,
4(12) : p. 1-4.
Abstract: The Factor 10 Club with 16members from
10 countries, was called into being because of mounting concerns
over the uncharted role of human-induced global material flows,
and the ecological ramifications of their unchecked growth. The
Club presents the view that a political commitment to a tenfold
increase in the average resource productivity (ie. de-links economic
activity to consumptive use and advocates increases in; the prices
of natural resources ) of the presently industrialized countries
is a prerequisite for meeting the goal of long-term global sustainability.
Hansen, Karl. "Factor
10". Developing Ideas 1 (January 1996): p4. http://188.8.131.52/didigest/jan96/3jan96.htm
Schmidt-Bleek, Fredrich and Wuppertal Institute.
"MIPS re-visited". Fresenius Environment Bulletin
(1993) vol. 2: 407-412.
Schmidt-Bleek, Friedrich and Wuppertal Institute
for Climate,Environment, Energy. The
fossil makers : Factor 10 and more. Basel:
Birkhauser, 1994. 159 p.
Contents: (Selected) Introduction; 1 - Humans are
a part of the biosphere; 2 Environmental policy today; 3 - MIPS
- a new ecological measure; 4 - SIPS - a measure for land use;
5 - Factor Ten; 6 - Services and consumption; 7 - Design - from
repair to a fresh start; 8 - The market and its signals; 9 - The
international side of ecological structural change.
Abstract: This book attempts to get at the root causes
of environmental changes. The authors believe this to be the material
flows which we set in motion - even those which permit us to use
energy. The aim of this book is to make this plausible, to draw
some preliminary conclusions and to discuss these conclusions.
The book begins by introducing the foundations for the requisite
ecological measure by searching for an answer to the question,
What is it that makes our economy so un-ecological after we put
so much time and effort into improving environmental technology?
The current methodologies for evaluating the environmental risks
associated with economic goods are summarized. The author discusses
the framework for a measure of the environmental tolerance of
processes, infrastructures, and goods and services. The surface
area demands of human activity are discussed, followed by consideration
of the limits to abuse of the ecosystem. This is followed by the
author examining the question of what services really are, as
well as how purchasing decisions can be made more ecologically
responsible. He comments on the limits to adjusting prices and
satisfying demands by introducing technologies that are more ecologically
benign. The process of product design is discussed by the author
using the example of designing an ecologically optimized refrigerator.
The book ends by considering how ecological structural change
can be set in motion; showing that the transition to an ecologically
compatible economy will have to be an international one.
von Weizacker, Ernst, Amory B. Lovins and Hunter
L. Lovins. Factor four : doubling wealth
- halving resource use. London: EarthScan, 1997. 224 p.
Contents: Introduction: more for less; Twenty examples
of revolutionizing energy productivity; Twenty examples of revolutionizing
material productivity; Ten examples of revolutionizing transport
productivity; Making it happen - improving profitability; Buying
and selling efficiency; Reward what we want, not the opposite;
Ecological tax reform; The challenge from Rio; Avalanches of matter:
the forgotten agenda; Unsatisfactory part-solutions; We may have
fifty years left ot close the gaps; Green economics; Trade and
the environment; Non-material wealth.
Concepts & Frameworks : Green Accounting
Common, Michael. Sustainability
and policy : limits to economics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
U. Press, 1995. 348 p.
Contents: 1 - Introduction: Background, Major themes,
Reader's guide; 2 - The world economy: Demography, National economies,
International trade and capital movements, Energy production and
use, Inequality and deprivation; 3 - Sustainability: The economy
and the environment, The economic conceptualization of sustainability,
A synthetic and operational approach?; 4 - History and perspective:
Human history, Affluence and welfare, Measuring economic performance;
5 - Thinking about futures: Limits to growth ?, Economists on
limits, Biologists and limits, Science and policy; 6 - Economics:
A brief history of economics, Microeconomics, Macroeconomics,
Public sector economics; 7 - Resource and environmental economics:
Property rights, Policy goals, Policy instruments, Cost-benefit
analysis and discounting, Risk and uncertainty, Intergenerational
equity, Assumptions and policy; 8 - Some new economics: Green
accounting, An energy theory of value, Responding to uncertainty,
Ecological economics; 9 - National policy: Policy objectives,
Policy instruments, Carbon taxation, Basic incomes; 10 - The international
dimension: International trade and sustainability, The global
climate change problem, Targets for prevention policy, Instrument
choice for prevention policy; 11 - Postscript .
Abstract: Two of the greatest problems facing the
human race today are poverty and the threat to the natural environment.
Economic growth is routinely advocated as the solution to poverty,
but the natural environment is already threatened by current levels
of economic activity. This book examines both economic and ecological
approaches to this dilemma, and considers policy issues for industrial
economies. It also includes a useful review of recent literature
in the area. The author argues that economists rarely address
threats to sustainability. He suggests that, while economics cannot
offer a blueprint for a sustainable society, the use of economic
or price incentives can help achieve social goals and address
threats to sustainability.
Gallon, Gary T. The
role of green economics in Canada. Toronto, Environmental
Economics International, 1992.
Contents : (Selected) Green economics replaces brown
economics; How to foster the development of green economics: Support
business initiatives, Expand research and development, Round Tables
on Environment and the Economy; Three new green technologies:
Twist wing windmill blade, The reusable envelope, Solmate energy
saver; Green economic market growth & job creation; A new
green accounting approach; Native peoples and other cultures'
economies; Environmental collapse of the cod fisheries.
Jesinghaus, Jochen . The
pressure indices project: theory and structure. [s.l.]: The
author, 1995? Various paging.
Contents: (Selected) 1 - The roles of green accounting
& pressure indices; 2 - Pressure indices and valuation of
environmental damages: Current approaches to valuation and aggregation,
Social cost-benefit analysis - are we in the optimum?, The cake-share
model - an explanation for the differences in the monetary valuation
of environmental damages, The hierarchical structure of environmental
policy, Functions of (Pressure) indices - the interface information
- politics; 3 - Implementation - the European Commission's Pressure
Indices Project: Goals of the project, Project organization, Time
schedule, Some remarks on the project structure; 4 - Pressure
indices and "Sustainability indicators"; 5 - The role
of monetary evaluation: towards a "Green GDP"?: Increasing
the efficiency of EIAs - "Avoidance costs per pressure index
point", Defensive expenditures to correct GNP, WTP, budget
and tax allocations to judge the "volume" of environmental
Abstract : This paper focuses on the theoretical
foundations of Environmental Pressure Indices.
Odum, Howard T. Environmental
accounting : emergy and environmental decision making. New
York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996. 370 p.
Contents: (Selected) Preface; 1 - Introduction: Emergy
and real wealth; 2 - Emergy and the energy hierarchy; 3 - Earth
emergy; 4 - Environmental production and economic use; 5 - Emergy
evaluation procedure; 6 - Empower through networks: emergy algebra;
7 - Evaluating environmental resources; 8 - Net emergy of fuels
and electricity; 9 - Evaluating alternatives for development;
10 - Emergy of states and nations; 11 - Evaluating international
exchange; 12 - Evaluating information and human service; 13 -
Emergy over time; 14 - Comparison of methods; 15 - Policy perspectives;
An Emergy Glossary (Campbell); Appendixes.
Abstract: This book introduces EMERGY accounting
for the evaluation of environmental and economic uses. The author
describes EMERGY as the unit of measure for an evaluation system
that represents both the environmental values and the economic
values. EMERGY measures both the work of nature and that of humans
in generating products and services. By selecting choices that
maximize EMERGY production and use, policies and judgments can
favor those environmental alternatives that maximize real wealth,
the whole economy and the public benefit. In this book, environmental
accounting with EMERGY is introduced with its theoretical basis,
calculation procedures, and examples of its application.
Concepts & Frameworks : Industrial Ecology
Allenby, Braden R. and Deanna J. Rickards, (eds.).
The greening of industrial ecosystems. Washington, D. C.:
National Academy Press, 1994 . 272 p.
Contents: Industrial metabolism: theory and policy
(Ayres); Energy and industrial ecology (Linden); Input-output
analysis and industrial ecology (Duchin); Wastes as raw materials
(Allen and Behmanesh); Economics and sustainable development (Crosson
and Toman); From voluntary to regulatory pollution prevention
(Anderson); International environmental law and industrial ecology
(Housman); Industrial ecology: the role of government (Weinberg
et al); Integrating environment and technology: design for environment
(Allenby); Preventing pollution and seeking environmentally preferable
alternatives in the U.S. Air Force (Morehouse); Designing the
modern automobile for recycling (Klimisch); Greening the telephone:
a case study (Sekutowski); The utilization-focused service economy:
resource efficiency and product-life extension (Stahel); Zero-loss
environmental accounting systems (Todd); Implications of industrial
ecology for firms (Dillon); Design for environment: an R&D
manager's perspective (Pfahl); The two faces of technology: changing
perspectives in design for environment (Friedlander); Industrial
ecology and design for environment: the role of universities (Ehrenfeld).
Abstract : This volume explores the new industrial
ecology, an emerging framework for making environmental factors
an integral part of economic and business decision making. Experts
on this new frontier explore concepts and applications, including
bringing international law up to par with many national laws to
encourage better environmental practices; integrating environmental
costs into accounting systems for better management decision making;
and understanding how concepts such as design for environment,
"industrial metabolism" and sustainable development
will affect both manufacturing and service companies.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Technology,
Business, and Environment Program. Bibliography
on industrial ecology and sustainable development . 14 p.
Contents: Industrial ecology; Industrial parks and
environmental architecture; Industrial ecology - design for environment;
Industrial ecology - structural economics, I/O models, and ecological/environmental
economics; Industrial ecology - ecofeedback for self-regulation;
General ecological works; Other sources on business and environmental
management; Sustainable development; Learning organizations; Other
Socolow, R. et al. (eds.).
Industrial ecology and global change. New York: Cambridge
U. Press, 1994. 500 p.
Contents: Industrial ecology: definition and implementation
(Graedel); Industrialization as a historical phenomenon (Grubler);
Changing perceptions of vulnerability (Cantor and Rayner); The
human dimension of vulnerability (Chen); Global industrialization:
a developing country perspective (Huq); Human impacts on the carbon
and nitrogen cycles (Ayres et al); Charting development paths:
a multicountry comparison of carbon dioxide emissions (Moomaw
and Tullis); Reducing urban sources of methane: an experiment
in industrial ecology (Hariss); Reducing carbon dioxide emissions
in Russia (Kononov); Energy efficiency in China: past experience
and future prospects (Zhenping); Roles for biomass energy in sustainable
devlopment (Williams); Soil as a vulnerable environmental system
(Schnoor and Thomas); The vulnerability of biotic diversity (Schlesinger);
Global ecotoxicology: management and science (Anderson); Industrial
activity and metals emissions (Nriagu); Metals loading of the
environment: cadmium in the Rhine Basin (Stigliani et al); Emissions
and exposure to metals: cadmium and lead (Thomas and Spiro); Nuclear
power: an industrial ecology that failed? (Berkhout); Product
life-cycle management to replace waste management (Braungart);
Industrial ecology in the manufacturing of consumer products (France
and Thomas); Design for environment: a management perspective
(Paton); Prioritizing impacts in industrial ecology (Graedel et
al); Finding and implementing projects that reduce waste (Nelson);
Free-lunch economics for industrial ecologists (Panayotou and
Zinnes); Policies to encourage clean technology (Andrews); Initiatives
in Lower Saxony to link ecology to economy (Griefahn); Military-civilian
conversion and the environment in Russia (Golitsyn); The political
economy of raw materials extraction and trade (Bunker); Development,
environment and energy efficiency (Gadgil); The industrial ecology
agenda (Andrews et al)
Abstract: The goal of industrial ecology is the evolution
of the world's industrial activity into a sustainable and environmentally
bening system. This book is a wide-ranging exploration of this
new approach to environmental problems. With contributions from
a broad range of disciplines - environmental science, technology
assessment, economics, policy studies - the book lays out the
range of concerns encompassed by industrial ecology.
Wallner, Heinz Peter and Michael Narodoslawsky.
The concept of sustainable islands
: cleaner production, industrial ecology, and the network paradigm
as preconditions for regional sustainable development.
Graz, Austria: The Authors, 1994. 8 p.
Conference: European Roundtable on Cleaner Production
Programs (1994: Graz, Austria).
Abstract: The islands approach, which is a bottom-up
strategy, towards sustainability is introduced. The basic assumption
is that sustainability can be introduced starting from small sustainable
regions. One of the main theses is that sustainability is linked
to complexity of the regional network. The intensity, the speed,
and comprehensiveness of internal and external interactions, as
well as the connectedness of the regional network have to be changed
in order to reach local sustainability.
Young, John E. and Aaron Sachs.
The next efficiency revolution : creating a sustainable materials
economy. Worldwatch paper no. 121. Washington, D. C.: Worldwatch
Institute WWI, 1994. 58 p.
Contents: An economy in the raw; Society's consuming
passion; building a secondary materials economy; designing for
efficiency; New markets, new investments; The economic opportunity;
A revolutionary partnership; Notes.
For an extensive library of documents on Sustainable Consumption and Production,
see IISD's Linkages http://www.iisd.ca/linkage/consume/consume.html