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IISD Welcomes Transparency on Fossil Fuel Subsidies by China and the United States

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[下面中国版.] GENEVA—September 19, 2016—Today China and the United States released voluntary peer reviews of their fossil fuel subsidies. The two countries are the first among G20 members to undertake peer reviews of their fossil fuel subsidies as part of the G20 commitment “to phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption.” 

The peer review process starts with the preparation of a “self-review” report to identify, measure and evaluate fossil fuel subsidies. This report is then reviewed by a peer review panel. The panel for China included Germany, Indonesia, United States and the International Monetary Fund. The United States report was reviewed by China, Germany and Mexico. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development chaired the process and also peer reviewed both reports. 

“The United States and China—the two largest economies in the G20—are to be congratulated for their leadership,” said Peter Wooders, Director of IISD’s Energy Program. “This gesture of openness signals a genuine desire to remove subsidies that are both environmentally and economically harmful. I hope the peer reviews encourage other G20 members to talk openly about their fossil fuel subsidies and develop plans for phase out.”  

G20 peer reviews include inventories of fossil fuel subsidies, an evaluation of their effects and costs, and plans that countries have made to phase out those considered “inefficient” and which “encourage wasteful consumption."   

The published review for the United States lists 17 subsidies of the total value of US$ 8.2 billion. The review for China lists 9 subsidies worth US$ 14.5 billion. China’s peer review report is notable for also including a reform plan and timeline, identifying subsidies for phase-out in the near future. This sets an example for other G20 nations. 

“It is encouraging to see that the reviews list both consumption and production subsidies, encompassing the many forms of budgetary transfers, tax breaks and regulatory privileges that can encourage wasteful use of energy,” said Richard Bridle, Research Officer with the IISD Global Subsidies Initiative. 

Unfortunately, the G20 leaders have not been able to agree a definitive timeline for the phase out of all inefficient fossil fuel subsidies, despite mounting pressure to do so. Ahead of the G20 leaders’ summit earlier this month, more than 200 NGOs from 45 countries and a group of insurers with US$ 1.2 trillion under management urged G20 leaders to phase out subsidies for fossil fuels by 2020.

“Although the time is running short, the G20 leaders still have a chance to meet these expectations and set a timeline for reform under next year’s G20 presidency by Germany,” said Wooders.
 
The United States and China peer review documents are available here: http://www.g20.org/English/Documents/Current/index.html

For more information on IISD’s work on fossil fuel subsidies, visit the website of our Global Subsidies Initiative www.iisd.org/gsi 
 

国际可持续发展研究院(IISD)欢迎中国和美国在G20峰会公开化石能源补贴,并再次呼吁设立行动时间表


中国和美国于2016年9月19号公布了在G20框架下自愿性同行评审化石能源补贴的结果。这两个国家率先在G20 成员国中开展同行评审,确定他们认为可以取消的化石能源补贴以及各自已有的取消化石能源补贴的方案。

中美同行评审基于2009年G20领导人的承诺:“取消没有效率的鼓励浪费性消费的化石能源补贴。”中美两国的同行评议首先准备“自我评估报告”以辨别、量化和评估相关的补贴内容。然后,自我评估报告交给专家组进行同行审议。中国的评审专家组由德国、印度尼西亚、美国和国际货币基金组织的专家组成,美国的评估报告由上述除了国际货币基金组织以外的相同专家,再加上中国的专家组成的评审组审议。两份报告的评估过程均由经济合作和发展组织任评审组的主席。自我评估报告以及同行专家组评估报告可在G20官方网站上获取(http://www.g20.org/hywj/dncgwj/index.html)。这次公开的同行评审过程将会支持深入讨论G20成员国经济体化石能源补贴的规模和影响。

G20框架下化石能源补贴的同行评审,包括给出化石能源补贴的清单、评估其影响以及成本、还有每个国家已经制定的取消那些被界定为“没有效率的”和“鼓励浪费性消费”的化石能源补贴方案。同行评审比此前G20成员国的自我报告更进一步,自我报告中有些国家表明没有这样的补贴。同行评审未必将所有的化石能源补贴考虑在内,只是聚焦在同行评审的国家之间同意考虑的补贴项目。第三方补贴清单一般会确定和量化更多的补贴项目,通常没有对补贴否是“无效率的”或者符合其它标准进行评估,但任然是促进公开补贴的重要部分。

中国和美国相互之间进行同行评审的过程,被德国、墨西哥和印度尼西亚采用,同意进行类似的同行评审。但是,G20领导人没有同意达成一个确定的目标日期以履行其实施化石能源改革的承诺,而设定目标期限是外界对这届G20峰会关键的期待。

 “美国和中国这两个G20成员国中最大的经济体,祝贺他们率先进行化石能源补贴同行评审,” 国际可持续发展研究院能源项目的负责人皮特·伍德斯说。“中美公开同行评审结果表达了取消危害环境和经济的化石能源补贴的真诚愿望。我希望中美同行评审能够鼓励其他G20成员国公开讨论其化石能源补贴的情况,并制定取消化石能源补贴的计划,帮助中国和美国实施其取消化石能源补贴的方案。”

公开的评估报告显示,美国列出了17类补贴内容总计82亿美元。中国的评估报告包含了9项补贴内容总计145亿美元,而一些主要的补贴还没有被量化。中国的同行评审报告特别瞩目之处在于包括了改革化石能源补贴的方案和时间表,并确定了将要在近期内取消的化石能源补贴,为其他G20成员国树立了榜样。
 
“令人鼓舞的是看到了评估报告中列出了消费侧和生产侧的补贴,包括了不同形式的转移支付、税收减免以及政策性优惠等实质上鼓励浪费性能源利用的补贴”,国际可持续发展研究院旗下的全球能源补贴倡议研究员理查德·布莱德尔说。“中国类似土地税收减免等对化石能源企业的补贴确实比较难以量化,但是其补贴的额度很可能非常大,这类补贴改革对减少碳排放以及增加财政收入会有显著的贡献。”

同行评审过程是G20 承诺取消没有效率的化石能源补贴的重要内容。但是,G20领导人还没同意一个明确的时间表以取消所有没有效率的化石能源补贴。事实上,取消化石能源补贴的势头日渐突显。有四十多个国家支持一份鼓励取消化石能源补贴的公报,要求公开补贴和实施补贴改革。来自45个国家的200多家非政府机构、以及管理着1.2万亿美元资产的保险业组成的团体,呼吁G20领导人设定一个在2020年取消化石能源补贴的时间表。随着峰会临近,对中国主办的G20峰会实现这个目标寄予了很高的期望,结果还是没有如愿。

“虽然时间非常紧迫,但是G20领导人还是有机会实现这个愿望的:在明年德国主办的G20峰会设定化石能源补贴改革的时间表 ” 伍德斯说。


About the International Institute for Sustainable Development

Established in 1990, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) is a non-partisan, charitable organization specializing in policy research and analysis, and information exchange. Through their head office in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and their branches in Ottawa, New York, and Geneva, the Institute champions sustainable development around the world through innovation, partnerships, research and communications. It is dedicated to engaging decision-makers in business, government, non-government organizations and academia on issues around economic and legal frameworks, energy and climate change, water, resilience, and knowledge.

For more information, please contact: Sumeep Bath at sbath@iisd.ca or +1 (204) 958 7700 ext. 740

IISD contributes to sustainable development by advancing policy recommendations on international trade and investment, economic policy, climate change and energy, natural and social capital, and the enabling role of communication technologies in these areas.