The result of two or more parties (individuals or groups) having, or perceiving to have, incompatible goals and interests and acting upon these differences. Conflicts arise from imbalances in human relations, whether in social status, access to resources, or power, which can lead to discrimination, poverty, oppression and environmental degradation.

Conflict does not necessarily lead to negative outcomes and can even be a constructive process of change. Violent conflict, on the other hand, always has negative repercussions. This refers to the actions, attitudes or systems that cause physical, psychological, social or environmental damage. Killing and intimidation are the most visible forms of violent conflict.

The protection, management and sustainable use of plants, animals and ecosystems.

Conflict-sensitive conservation
Conservation programming and implementation that takes into account the causes, actors and impacts of conflict in order to minimize conflict risks and maximize peace-building opportunities.

Peace, in its most basic form, is seen as the absence of violent conflict. In our view, however, it is more than this. It is a state of balance characterized by core values such as social justice, economic opportunity and environmental sustainability.

The process of achieving peace by addressing the systems and attitudes that cause conflict, as well as the resulting grievances and injustices. It is this process that the CSC Manual aims to promote through conservation interventions.